Friedrich Heinrich, Freiherr von Kittlitz (16 February 1799 – 10 April 1874) was a German artist, naval officer, explorer and naturalist. He was a descendant of a family of old Prussian nobility ("Freiherr" meaning "independent lord" - ranking with a baron).
Kittlitz sailed round the world between 1826 and 1829 on the RussianSenjawin expedition, under the leadership of Captain Fyodor Petrovich Litke. He provided the museum of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg with 754 specimens of 314 bird species, including species that subsequently became extinct. Among them are the Kosrae Crake (Porzana monasa) and Kosrae Starling (Aplonis corvina) which are known only from his specimens. He published Twenty-four Views of the Vegetation of the Coasts and Islands of the Pacific (1844).
Kittlitz travelled to North Africa in 1831 with his friend Eduard Rüppell, but had to return to Germany due to poor health. It was during his time in Egypt whilst waiting for a boat that he collected specimens of the bird which became known as Kittlitz's Plover.