|Born||7 November 1907|
|Died||3 August 1970(aged 62)|
|Institutions||University of Bristol
University of Oxford
|Known for||London equations|
|Notable awards||Fellow of the Royal Society (1961)|
These equations gave a first explanation to the Meissner effect (and, so, to the properties of superconductors). He is known as well for being the inventor of the dilution refrigerator, a cryogenic device that uses liquid helium.
Honours and awards
|“||Populated the finite depth to which a magnetic field penetrates into a superconductor. Suggested and first carried out an experiment (high frequency dissipation) proving the existence of this effect. The concept of the "depth of penetration" has initiated a great number of experiments and has also led to the development (by H. London together with his brother F. London) of the electrodynamics of superconductivity.
First considered the relation of size and critical field in superconductors, introducing the concept of surface energy. Postulated the increase of the critical field with decreasing size on a thermodynamical basis and demonstrated the existence of a striking effect of this kind by direct experiment (with Appleyard and others). Investigated experimentally the question of the existence of an electric field in a superconductor. Applied thermodynamics to the thermo-mechanical effect in liquid helium II and derived a relation (which now bears his name) between entropy, temperature and thermo-mechanical pressure which has since been verified experimentally and which has been of great value to the understanding of the helium II problem. Has developed a new method for the separation of O-13 and O-18 isotopes by the distillation of carbon monoxide. Has recently published work on the differences in the molecular volume of isotopes.
- Shoenberg, D. (1971). "Heinz London 1907-1970". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 17: 441. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1971.0017.
- London, F.; London, H. (1935). "The Electromagnetic Equations of the Supraconductor". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 149 (866): 71. Bibcode:1935RSPSA.149...71L. doi:10.1098/rspa.1935.0048.
- Appleyard, E. T. S., J. R. Bristow, and H. London (1939). "Variation of Field Penetration with Temperature in a Superconductor". Nature 143: 433–434. doi:10.1038/143433a0.
- "Royal Society Library Archive Details for London, Heinz". London: The Royal Society. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
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