Heinz London

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Heinz London
Born (1907-11-07)7 November 1907
Died 3 August 1970(1970-08-03) (aged 62) [1]
Institutions University of Bristol
University of Oxford
Clarendon Laboratory
Known for London equations[2]
Notable awards Fellow of the Royal Society (1961)[1]

Heinz London (Bonn, Germany 1907-1970) was a German Physicist.


After studying in different German universities, London fled to England in 1933 along with his brother Fritz London due to the Nazi racial laws.


London worked with his brother Fritz London on superconductivity, discovering the London equations[2] when working at the University of Oxford, in the Clarendon Laboratory.[3]

These equations gave a first explanation to the Meissner effect (and, so, to the properties of superconductors). He is known as well for being the inventor of the dilution refrigerator, a cryogenic device that uses liquid helium.

Honours and awards[edit]

London was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1961, [1] his nomination read


  1. ^ a b c Shoenberg, D. (1971). "Heinz London 1907-1970". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 17: 441. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1971.0017.  edit
  2. ^ a b London, F.; London, H. (1935). "The Electromagnetic Equations of the Supraconductor". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 149 (866): 71. Bibcode:1935RSPSA.149...71L. doi:10.1098/rspa.1935.0048.  edit
  3. ^ Appleyard, E. T. S., J. R. Bristow, and H. London (1939). "Variation of Field Penetration with Temperature in a Superconductor". Nature 143: 433–434. doi:10.1038/143433a0. 
  4. ^ "Royal Society Library Archive Details for London, Heinz". London: The Royal Society. Retrieved 2013-11-29.