The Heishui Mohe or Heuksu Malgal also called Black-River Mohe (黑水靺鞨; Hangul: 흑수말갈; pinyin: Hēishuǐ Mòhé; Jurchen/manchu: sahaliyan i aiman 薩哈廉部), were the most feared among the Mohe tribes. They lived in Outer Manchuria, along the Hei Shui ("black river" 黑水), within today's Khabarovsk Krai, Jewish Autonomous Oblast and Amur Oblast of Russia and the northern part of China's Heilongjiang Province. The southern Heishui Mohe were submitted by King Seon of Balhae who administrated their territory. But most of them remained independent.
When the Liao (Khitan) Empire conquered Balhae in 926, the Heishui Mohe tribes that became incorporated into the Liao were called Shu Jurchen (熟女眞; Hangul: 숙여진) literally, Familiar or Tamed Jurchens, who were the ancestor of the "Cultured Manchu": the Jianzhou Jurchens and the Haixi Jurchens. The remaining Heishui Mohe tribes, who were not incorporated into the Liao, were called Sheng Jurchens (生女眞; Hangul: 생여진) literally, Unfamiliar or Wild Jurchens, who were the ancestors of the "Barbarian Manchu": the Yeren Jurchens (野人女眞).
- Nishuliji (Sinicized: 倪屬利稽, Koreanized: 예속리계, 아속리계, 아속이계 pinyin: Níshǔlìjī) around 722.
- Gaoziluo (Sinicized: 高子羅, Koreanized: 고자라 pinyin: Gāozǐluó), who made a treaty in 921 with Taejo of Goryeo, recognizing him as the king of Goryeo by sending him an embassy of 170 men.
- A-gu-lang (Sinicized: 阿於閒, Koreanized: 아어한 pinyin: Āyúxián).
- Adoutuofu (Sinicized: 阿豆陀弗, Koreanized: 아두타불), another Chieftain of the Heishui Mohe a contemporary Mohe Chieftain during Hyeonjong of Goryeo's reign.
Modern archaeologists on both sides of the Amur/Heilongjiang River have made a number of conclusions about the correspondence of the discovered arcaheological cultures to the ethnic groups known from ancient records. According to Russian archaeologists, prior to ca. second half of the 7th century AD the Lesser Khingan mountain range formed a natural boundary between two groups of archaeological cultures. West of the range, the Talakan Culture (талаканская культура) was succeeded by the Mikhailovskaya Culture (михайловская культура), which has been identified with the Mongolic-speaking Shiwei people. East of the range, the Poltsevo Culture (польцевская культура) and the Naifeld Group (найфельдская группы, also known as Tongzhen Culture based on the findings on the Chinese side of the River) of the Mohe Culture was found; the latter was identified with the Tungusic Heishui Mohe people.
According to the archeological evidence, during the late 7th century through 10th century AD, some Naifeld-Culture Heishui Mohe migrated west of the range (to the section of the Amur Valley west of the Bureya River, and possibly also into the Nen River basin), absorbing the indigenous population of the area (which is evidenced e.g. by the presence of the ornaments associated with the autochthonous Mikhailovskaya Culture on the ceramics of the Neifeld [Heishui Mohe] people who had migrated into the Mikhailovskaya's former area). Modern researchers surmise that the migration of some of the Mohe people west of the range during the late 7th - early 8th century may have been caused by the pressure from the Balhae further south.
Another Mohe group, the Sumo Mohe from the Sungari Valley migrated to the Western Amur Valley at roughly the same time as well. Which Mohe group arrived to the region first remains the subject of a dispute, hinging on radiocarbon and stratigraphic dating of various sites.
There is some archaeological evidence for the migration of the Sumo Mohe to the northeast, to the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk as well, namely, apparent influence of the Neifeld Culture found in the ceramics of the Tokarevo Culture of the latter region.
- Mohe (disambiguation)
- History of Manchuria
- Military history of Korea
- List of Korea-related topics
- Huang, P.: "New Light on the origins of the Manchu," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 50, no.1 (1990): 239-82. Retrieved from JSTOR database July 18, 2006.
- С.П. Нестеров (S.P. Nesterov) ПУТИ И ВРЕМЯ МИГРАЦИИ ХЭЙШУЙ МОХЭ В ЗАПАДНОЕ ПРИАМУРЬЕ (The routes and timing of the migration of the Heishui Mohe into the western Amur valley) (Russian)