Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha

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Hekimoğlu
Ali
Pasha
Portrait of a Grand Vizier (?).jpg
Portrait of Grand Vizier Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha
by Jean-Étienne Liotard
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
In office
15 February 1755 – 18 May 1755
Monarch Osman III
Preceded by Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (tr)
Succeeded by Naili Abdullah Pasha
In office
21 April 1742 – 23 September 1743
Monarch Mahmud I
Preceded by Nişancı Ahmed Pasha
Succeeded by Seyyid Hasan Pasha
In office
12 March 1732 – 12 August 1735
Monarch Mahmud I
Preceded by Topal Osman Pasha
Succeeded by Gürcü Ismail Pasha (tr)
Ottoman Governor of Egypt
In office
1756–1757
Preceded by Baltacızade Mustafa Pasha
Succeeded by Sa'deddin Pasha al-Azm
In office
1740–1741
Preceded by Sulayman Pasha al-Azm
Succeeded by Hatibzade Yahya Pasha
Personal details
Born 1689
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Died 13 August 1758
Kütahya, Ottoman Empire
Nationality Ottoman
Relations Hatibzade Yahya Pasha (son-in-law)
Religion Sunni Islam
Origins Venetian
Military service
Allegiance  Ottoman Empire
Years of service 1722–55
Rank Serdar (commander; 1732–33, 1742–43, 1755)
Battles/wars Ottoman–Persian War (1722–27)
Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35)
Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39)

Ottoman–Persian War (1743–46)

Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1689 – 13 August 1758) was an Ottoman statesman and military leader who served as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire three times. His father, Nuh, was a Venetian convert who worked in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) as a doctor, and his mother Safiye was a Turk. His epithet Hekimoğlu means "son of a physician" in Turkish.

Early years[edit]

Ali worked in various districts (and provinces) of the empire like Zile (in modern-day Tokat Province, Turkey), Yeniil (south of modern-day Sivas Province, Turkey), Adana Eyalet (in modern-day Turkey), Aleppo Eyalet (in modern-day Syria) as a provincial governor. He fought during Ottoman–Persian War (1722–27) and captured Tebriz. After the treaty of Hamedan in 1727, he worked in Shahrizor Eyalet (in modern-day Iraq) and Sivas. During the new war against Persia, he was appointed as the commander of the front (Turkish: serdar). He captured Urmia and Tebriz (second time).

He was the father-in-law of Hatibzade Yahya Pasha, who succeeded him as the Ottoman governor of Egypt the first time.

First term as grand vizier[edit]

During his first term (12 March 1732 – 12 August 1735), he tried to reform the army by establishing a new artillery corps named Humbaracı (Howitzer). For this task he employed a French convert named Claude Alexandre de Bonneval (later known as Humbaracı Ahmed Pasha). He was suspicious of the embattled Russia and tried to end the war against Persia to free up resources, but his peace policy was met with criticism, and, during a council of war held in the palace, Sultan Mahmud I dismissed him.

After the first term[edit]

After his first term, Ali Pasha continued as a provincial governor. He was appointed to Crete (in Greece), Bosnia, Egypt, and parts of Anatolia. In Bosnia, he defeated the Austrians[1] at the Battle of Banja Luka during the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) and supported the Grand Vizier İvaz Mehmet Pasha in the siege of Belgrade (1739). In Egypt, he the suppressed the uprising of the Mamluks,[2] and his governorship was reported to be largely peaceful and free of insurrections.[3]

Second term as grand vizier[edit]

During his second term (21 April 1742 – 23 September 1743), the most important problem was the new war against Persia, still led by Nadir Shah of the Afsharid dynasty. However, the Sultan refused Ali Pasha's campaign plan and dismissed him, accusing him of not taking appropriate measures in the Eastern front.[4]

After the second term[edit]

After his second term, he was appointed as provincial governor to Lesbos, Crete, Bosnia, Trikala (in Greece), Ochakiv (in Ukraine), Vidin (in Bulgaria), and Trabzon (in Anatolia) in rapid succession. In Trabzon, he was able to end the chaos created by the local leaders.

Third term as grand vizier[edit]

His third term was very short (15 February 1755 – 18 May 1755). The new sultan Osman III was under the influence of the palace courtesans. When Ali Pasha refused to obey the sultan's order to execute a young prince (Turkish: şehzade), the sultan jailed him. He barely escaped being executed by the intercession of the valide sultan (queen mother) Şehsuvar.[5]

After the third term[edit]

After being jailed in Kızkulesi (Maidens' Tower) off the coast of the capital Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), he was first exiled to Magosa, Cyprus, and then to the island of Rhodes. He was given a pardon in 1756 and appointed as the Ottoman provincial governor to Egypt for the second time. Once again, his governorship was reported to be peaceful.[6] On 17 October 1757, for the fourth time, he was appointed the governor of Anatolia. On 13 August 1758, at the age of about 71, he died in Kütahya of a urinary tract infection.

He is buried in a small monumental tomb near the Hekimoğlu Ali Paşa Mosque at the religious buildings complex that he endowed to be built in the Davutpaşa neighborhood of Istanbul.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 p. 15
  2. ^ Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 p. 6
  3. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 1. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 247. 
  4. ^ Ayhan Buz: Osmanlı Sadrazamları,neden Kitap, istanbul,2009,ISBN 978-975-254-278-5 pp 204-205
  5. ^ Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 p. 33
  6. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt 1. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 308. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Topal Osman Pasha
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
12 March 1732 – 12 August 1735
Succeeded by
Gürcü Ismail Pasha (tr)
Preceded by
Sulayman Pasha al-Azm
Ottoman Governor of Egypt
1740–1741
Succeeded by
Hatibzade Yahya Pasha
Preceded by
Nişancı Ahmed Pasha
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
21 April 1742 – 23 September 1743
Succeeded by
Seyyid Hasan Pasha
Preceded by
Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (tr)
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
15 February 1755 – 18 May 1755
Succeeded by
Naili Abdullah Pasha
Preceded by
Baltacızade Mustafa Pasha
Ottoman Governor of Egypt
1756–1757
Succeeded by
Sa'deddin Pasha al-Azm