Helen Fisher (anthropologist)
|Helen E. Fisher|
|Born||May 31, 1945|
|Alma mater||University of Colorado|
|Known for||The First Sex, interpersonal attraction studies|
Helen E. Fisher (born May 31, 1945) is an American anthropologist and human behavior researcher. She is a professor at Rutgers University and has studied romantic interpersonal attraction for over 30 years. Prior to Rutgers University, she was a research associate at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
Dr. Fisher earned a BA in Anthropology and Psychology from New York University in 1968; an MA in Physical Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, Linguistics, and Archeology from the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1972, and a PhD in Physical Anthropology: Human Evolution, Primatology, Human Sexual Behavior, and Reproductive Strategies from the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1975.
She is a leading expert on the biology of love and attraction. She is currently the most referenced scholar in the love research community. In 2005, she was hired by match.com to help build chemistry.com, which used her research and experience to create both hormone-based and personality-based matching systems. She was one of the main speakers at the 2006 and 2008 TED conference. On January 30, 2009, she was featured in an ABC News 20/20 special, Why Him? Why Her? The Science of Seduction, where she discussed her most recent research on brain chemistry and romantic love.
In her book, Why We Love: The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love, Fisher proposed that humanity has evolved three core brain systems for mating and reproduction:
- lust - the sex drive or libido, also described as borogodó.
- attraction - early stage intense romantic love.
- attachment - deep feelings of union with a long term partner.
Love can start off with any of these three feelings, Fisher maintains. Some people have sex with someone new and then fall in love. Some fall in love first, then have sex. Some feel a deep feeling of attachment to another, which then turns into romance and the sex drive. But the sex drive evolved to initiate mating with a range of partners; romantic love evolved to focus one's mating energy on one partner at a time; and attachment evolved to enable us to form a pair bond and rear young together as a team.
Fisher discusses many of the feelings of intense romantic love, saying it begins as the beloved takes on "special meaning." Then you focus intensely on him or her. People can list the things they dislike about a sweetheart, but they sweep these things aside and focus on what they adore. Intense energy, elation, mood swings, emotional dependence, separation anxiety, possessiveness, physical reactions including a pounding heart and shortness of breath, and craving, Fisher reports, are all central to this feeling. But most important is obsessive thinking. As Fisher says, "Someone is camping in your head."
Fisher and her colleagues studied the brain circuitry of romantic love by fMRI-scanning the brains of 49 men and women: 17 who had just fallen madly in love, 15 who had just been dumped, and 17 who reported that they were still in love after an average of 21 years of marriage. One of her central ideas is that romantic love is a drive that is stronger than the sex drive. As she has said, "After all, if you casually ask someone to go to bed with you and they refuse, you don't slip into a depression, commit suicide or homicide -- but around the world people suffer terribly from romantic rejection."
Fisher also maintains that taking certain antidepressants can potentially dampen feelings of romantic love and attachment (as well as sex drive).
From the brain scans of people who had just fallen madly in love, Fisher's 2004 book discusses differences between male and female brains. On average, men tended to show more activity in a brain region associated with the integration of visual stimuli, while women showed more activity in several brain regions linked with memory recall. Fisher hypothesizes that these differences stem from differing evolutionary forces governing mate choice. In prehistory (and today), a male was obliged to size up a potential female partner visually to ensure that she is healthy and age-appropriate to bear and rear their potential offspring. But a female could not know from a male's appearance whether he would be a good husband and father; she had to remember his past behaviors, achievements and misadventures--memories which could help her select an effective husband and father for her forthcoming young.
In 2006, her MRI research, which showed that the ventral tegmental area and the caudate nucleus become active when people are in love, was featured in the (February) National Geographic cover-page article, "Love - the Chemical Reaction".
Four broad personality styles
Fisher distinguishes between four broad biologically-based styles of thinking and behaving which she associates with four broad neurochemical systems. Fisher emphasizes that these are not “types” and that we are all a unique combination of all of them.
The corresponding Platonic thinking style, Keirsey temperament type (according to some readers, not Fisher herself), and color can be seen in parenthesis.
- Explorer (creative; Artisan temperament, yellow) = dopamine
- Builder (sensible; Guardian temperament, blue) = serotonin
- Director (reasoning; Rational temperament; red) = testosterone
- Negotiator (intuitive; Idealist temperament; green) = estrogen/oxytocin
- Keirsey Temperament Sorter
- Interpersonal attraction
- Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
- Pepper Schwartz
- Neil Clark Warren
- "Fisher, Helen: May 31, 1945--Anthropologist". Connection.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- [dead link]
- "Stony Brook Mind/Brain Lecture Series : 10th Annual Lecture: The Drive to Love - The Biology and Evolution of Romantic Love : Guest Lecturer: Helen Fisher, Ph.D". Theswartzfoundation.org. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "BBC Science - Human Body & Mind - Science of Love". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "Safe in Your Mouth". Flatrock.org.nz. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "Browse Talks - TED.com". Ted.com. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- ABC News. "The Science of Seduction: Why Him, Why Her?". ABC News. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- Sumi, Glenn. "Sleepless in New York". Now (Review). Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Fisher, Helen (2004). Why We Love – the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-6913-5.
- "Love, The Thing Called Love - National Geographic Magazine". Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- Fisher, Helen (1983). The Sex Contract – the Evolution of Human Behavior. Quill. ISBN 0-688-01599-9.
- Fisher, Helen (1993). Anatomy of Love – a Natural History of Mating, Marriage, and Why We Stray. Quill. ISBN 0-449-90897-6.
- Fisher, Helen (1999). The First Sex – the Natural Talents of Women and How They are Changing the World. Random House. ISBN 0-679-44909-4.
- Fisher, Helen (2004). Why We Love: The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love. Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-7796-0.
- Fisher, Helen (2009). Why Him? Why Her?: Finding Real Love By Understanding Your Personality Type. Henry Holt USA-Canada. ISBN 0-8050-8292-1.
- Fisher, Helen (2009). Why Him? Why Her?: Finding Real Love By Understanding Your Personality Type. Oneworld Publications UK-Commonwealth. ISBN 978-1-85168-698-8.