Frankenthaler in 1956
December 12, 1928|
Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States
|Died||December 27, 2011
Darien, Connecticut, United States
|Known for||Abstract painting|
|Notable work(s)||Mountains and Sea|
|Movement||Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Lyrical Abstraction|
Helen Frankenthaler (December 12, 1928 – December 27, 2011) was an American abstract expressionist painter. She was a major contributor to the history of postwar American painting. Having exhibited her work for over six decades (early 1950s until 2011), she spanned several generations of abstract painters while continuing to produce vital and ever-changing new work. Frankenthaler began exhibiting her large-scale abstract expressionist paintings in contemporary museums and galleries in the early 1950s. She was included in the 1964 Post-Painterly Abstraction exhibition curated by Clement Greenberg that introduced a newer generation of abstract painting that came to be known as Color Field. Born in Manhattan, she was influenced by Hans Hofmann, Jackson Pollock's paintings and by Clement Greenberg. Her work has been the subject of several retrospective exhibitions, including a 1989 retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and been exhibited worldwide since the 1950s. In 2001, she was awarded the National Medal of Arts.
Early life and education
Helen Frankenthaler was a New Yorker. She was born in Manhattan on December 12, 1928. Her father was Alfred Frankenthaler, a respected New York State Supreme Court judge. Her mother, Martha (Lowenstein), had emigrated with her family from Germany to the United States shortly after she was born. Her two sisters, Marjorie and Gloria, were six and five years older, respectively. Growing up on Manhattan’s Upper East Side, Frankenthaler absorbed the privileged background of a cultured and progressive intellectual family that encouraged all three daughters to prepare themselves for professional careers. Her nephew is the artist/photographer Clifford Ross.
Frankenthaler studied at the Dalton School under Rufino Tamayo and also at Bennington College in Vermont. She met Clement Greenberg in 1950 and had a five-year relationship with him. She was later married to fellow artist Robert Motherwell (1915–1991), from 1958 until they divorced in 1971. Both born of wealthy parents, the pair was known as "the golden couple" and noted for their lavish entertaining. She gained from him two stepdaughters, Jeannie Motherwell and Lise Motherwell. She married Stephen M. DuBrul, Jr., an investment banker who served the Ford administration, in 1994.
Frankenthaler had been on the faculty of Hunter College.
Style and technique
Initially associated with abstract expressionism her career was launched in 1952 with the exhibition of Mountains and Sea. This painting is large - measuring seven feet by ten feet - and has the effect of a watercolor, though it is painted in oils. In it, she introduced the technique of painting directly onto an unprepared canvas so that the material absorbs the colors. She heavily diluted the oil paint with turpentine so that the color would soak into the canvas. This technique, known as "soak stain" was used by Jackson Pollock (1912–1956), and others; and was adopted by other artists notably Morris Louis (1912–1962), and Kenneth Noland (1924–2010), and launched the second generation of the Color Field school of painting. This method would sometimes leave the canvas with a halo effect around each area to which the paint was applied but has a disadvantage in that the oil in the paints will eventually cause the canvas to discolor and rot away.
Frankenthaler preferred to paint in privacy. If assistants were present she preferred them to be inconspicuous when not needed.
One of her most important influences was Clement Greenberg (1909–1994), an influential art and literary critic with whom she had a personal friendship and who included her in the Post-Painterly Abstraction exhibition that he curated in 1964. Through Greenberg she was introduced to the New York art scene. Under his guidance she spent the summer of 1950 studying with Hans Hofmann (1880–1966), catalyst of the Abstract Expressionist movement.
The first Jackson Pollock show Frankenthaler saw was at the Betty Parsons Gallery in 1950. She had this to say about seeing Pollock's paintings Autumn Rhythm, Number 30, 1950 (1950), Number One,1950 (Lavender Mist) (1950):
"It was all there. I wanted to live in this land. I had to live there, and master the language."
In 1960 the term Color Field painting was used to describe the work of Frankenthaler. This style was characterized by large areas of a more or less flat single color. The Color Field artists set themselves apart from the Abstract Expressionists because they eliminated the emotional, mythic or the religious content and the highly personal and gestural and painterly application.
Some of her thoughts on painting:
"A really good picture looks as if it's happened at once. It's an immediate image. For my own work, when a picture looks labored and overworked, and you can read in it—well, she did this and then she did that, and then she did that—there is something in it that has not got to do with beautiful art to me. And I usually throw these out, though I think very often it takes ten of those over-labored efforts to produce one really beautiful wrist motion that is synchronized with your head and heart, and you have it, and therefore it looks as if it were born in a minute." In Barbara Rose, Frankenthaler (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1975, p. 85)
Awards and legacy
Frankenthaler received the National Medal of Arts in 2001. She served on the National Council on the Arts of the National Endowment for the Arts from 1985 to 1992. Her other awards include First Prize for Painting at the first Paris Biennial (1959); Joseph E. Temple Gold Medal, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia (1968); New York City Mayor's Award of Honor for Arts and Culture (1986); and Distinguished Artist Award for Lifetime Achievement, College Art Association (1994). In 1990 she was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full Academician in 1994.
Frankenthaler did not consider herself a feminist: she said "For me, being a 'lady painter' was never an issue. I don’t resent being a female painter. I don’t exploit it. I paint." "Art was an extremely macho business," Anne Temkin, chief curator at the Museum of Modern Art, told NPR. "For me, there's a great deal of admiration just in the courage and the vision that she brought to what she did."
In 1953, Kenneth Noland and Morris Louis saw her Mountains and Sea which, Louis said later, was a "bridge between Pollock and what was possible." On the other hand some critics called her work "merely beautiful." Grace Glueck's obituary in The New York Times summed up Frankenthaler's career:
Critics have not unanimously praised Ms. Frankenthaler’s art. Some have seen it as thin in substance, uncontrolled in method, too sweet in color and too “poetic.” But it has been far more apt to garner admirers like the critic Barbara Rose, who wrote in 1972 of Ms. Frankenthaler’s gift for “the freedom, spontaneity, openness and complexity of an image, not exclusively of the studio or the mind, but explicitly and intimately tied to nature and human emotions."
Frankenthaler's first solo exhibition took place at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, in the fall of 1951. Her first major museum show, a retrospective of her 1950s work with a catalog by the critic and poet Frank O’Hara, a curator at the Museum of Modern Art, was at the Jewish Museum in 1960. Subsequent solo exhibitions include “Helen Frankenthaler,” Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (1969; traveled to Whitechapel Gallery, London; Orangerie Herrenhausen, Hanover; and Kongresshalle, Berlin), and “Helen Frankenthaler: a Painting Retrospective,” The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth (1989–90; traveled to the Museum of Modern Art, New York; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; and Detroit Institute of Arts).
Frankenthaler's work is represented in institutional collections worldwide, including the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto; Art Institute of Chicago; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Centre Pompidou, Paris; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Museum of Modern Art, New York; National Gallery of Australia, Canberra; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York; and Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
National Endowment for the Arts
According to the Los Angeles Times, "Frankenthaler did take a highly public stance during the late 1980s "culture wars" that eventually led to deep budget cuts for the National Endowment for the Arts and a ban on grants to individual artists that still persists. At the time, she was a presidential appointee to the National Council on the Arts, which advises the NEA's chairman. In a 1989 commentary for the New York Times, she wrote that, while "censorship and government interference in the directions and standards of art are dangerous and not part of the democratic process," controversial grants to Andres Serrano, Robert Mapplethorpe and others reflected a trend in which the NEA was supporting work "of increasingly dubious quality. Is the council, once a helping hand, now beginning to spawn an art monster? Do we lose art ... in the guise of endorsing experimentation?"
- National Gallery of Art Retrieved August 17, 2010
- Web page titled "Helen Frankenthaler", at the "Connecticut Women's Hall of Fame" website, retrieved January 30, 2010
- Belz, Carl. "Helen Frankenthaler". Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
- Glueck, Grace (December 27, 2011). "Helen Frankenthaler, Abstract Painter Who Shaped a Movement, Dies at 83". The New York Times. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
- Grace Glueck, NY Times, 1998 Retrieved August 17, 2010
- Tate bio Retrieved August 17, 2010
- Britannica RetrievedAugust 17, 2010
- Fenton, Terry. "Morris Louis". sharecom.ca. Retrieved December 8, 2008
- Michael Klein, Mountains and Sea, ArtNet Retrieved August 17, 2010
- Carmean, E.A. Helen Frankenthaler A Paintings Retrospective, Exhibition Catalog, p.12, Harry N. Abrams in conjunction with The Museum of Modern Art, Fort Worth, ISBN 0-8109-1179-5
- John Elderfield, After a Breakthrough on the 1950s paintings of Helen Frankenthaler Retrieved August 17, 2010
- By TED LOOSPublished: April 27, 2003 (2003-04-27). "ART/ARCHITECTURE; Helen Frankenthaler, Back to the Future; New York Times; April 27, 2003". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- list of artists in the exhibition Retrieved August 17, 2010
- 'Color Field' Artists Found a Different Way Retrieved 3 August 2010
- "Colour Field Painting". Tate. Retrieved August 17, 2010
- "Lifetime Honors: National Medal of Arts". National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
- Kennedy, Mark for The Associated Press (December 27, 2011). "Abstract Painter Helen Frankenthaler Dies At 83". Salon.com. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
- Helen Frankenthaler Guggenheim Museum Collection Online, New York.
- Grace Glueck says in the NYT this quote comes from: Gruen, John (1972). The Party’s Over Now: Reminiscences of the fifties—New York's artists, writers, musicians, and their friends. Viking Press. ISBN 0-916366-54-5.
- Rose, Joel (December 27, 2011). "Abstract Artist Helen Frankenthaler Dies At Age 83". National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved December 27, 2011.
- Gibson, Eric (December 27, 2011). "Pushing Past Abstraction". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
- Painted on 21st Street: Helen Frankenthaler from 1950 to 1959, March 8 - April 13, 2013 Gagosian Gallery, New York.
- Mike Boehm (December 28, 2011). "Painter took art in new directions". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- Helen Frankenthaler (17 July 1989). "Did We Spawn an Arts Monster?". The New York Times.
- Elderfield, John. Helen Frankenthaler, 1989, Harry N. Abrams ISBN 0-8109-0916-2
- Helen Frankenthaler, After Mountains and Sea: Frankenthaler 1956-1959 (New York : Guggenheim Museum, ©1998.) ISBN 0-8109-6911-4, ISBN 978-0-8109-6911-7 0892071974 9780892071975
- Marika Herskovic, New York School Abstract Expressionists Artists Choice by Artists, (New York School Press, 2000.) ISBN 0-9677994-0-6. p. 16; p. 37; pp. 142–145, York 1986. ISBN 0-87099-477-8
- Pollock, Griselda, "Killing Men and Dying Women". In: Orton, Fred and Pollock, Griselda (eds), Avant-Gardes and Partisans Reviewed. London: Redwood Books, 1996. ISBN 0-7190-4398-0
- Wilkin, Karen. Frankenthaler: Works on Paper 1949-1984, George Braziller (February 1985), ISBN 978-0-8076-1103-6
- Alison Rowley, Helen Frankenthaler: Painting History, Writing painting. I.B.Tauris Publishers, 2007.
- Helen Frankenthaler in Interview with Henry Geldzahler, in Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art, edited by Kristine Stiles and peter Selz, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996, pp. 28–30. ISBN 0-520-20253-8
- Malvarez, Javier, UNED, Madrid, Spain (In Spanish) "Helen Frankenthaler:Explorando la Fluidez", Master Thesis, 2011,
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- Helen Frankenthaler "Contemporary Experience Lecture" The Baltimore Museum of Art: Baltimore, Maryland, 1970 Accessed June 26, 2012