Helen Hunt Jackson

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Helen Hunt Jackson, c. 1850s–1860s

Helen Maria Hunt Jackson, born Helen Fiske (October 15, 1830 – August 12, 1885), was an American poet and writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government. She detailed the adverse effects of government actions in her history A Century of Dishonor (1881). Her novel Ramona dramatized the federal government's mistreatment of Native Americans in Southern California and attracted considerable attention to her cause,[1][2] although its popularity was based on its romantic and picturesque qualities rather than its political content. It was estimated to have been reprinted 300 times, and contributed to the growth of tourism in Southern California.

Early years[edit]

She was born Helen Fiske in Amherst, Massachusetts, the daughter of Nat Welby Fiske and Deborielle Waterman Vinal. She had two brothers, both of whom died after birth, and a sister Anne. Anne was the wife of E. C. Banfield, a federal government official who served as Solicitor of the United States Treasury.[3] Helen's father was a minister, author, and professor of Latin, Greek, and philosophy at Amherst College.

Her mother died in 1844 when Helen was fifteen, and her father three years later when she was eighteen. Her father provided for her education and arranged for an uncle to care for her. Fiske attended Ipswich Female Seminary and the Abbott Institute, a boarding school run by Reverend J.S.C. Abbott in New York City. She was a classmate of the poet Emily Dickinson, also from Amherst. The two corresponded for the rest of their lives, but few of their letters have survived.

Marriage and family[edit]

In 1852 at age 22, Fiske married U.S. Army Captain Edward Bissell Hunt. They had two sons, one of whom, Murray Hunt, died as an infant in 1854 of a brain disease. In 1863, her husband died in a military accident. Her second son, Rennie Hunt, died of diphtheria in 1865.

About 1873–1874, Hunt met William Sharpless Jackson, a wealthy banker and railroad executive, while visiting at Colorado Springs, Colorado, at the resort of Seven Falls. They married in 1875 and she took the name Jackson, under which she was best known for her writings.[4] She was a Unitarian.[5]

Career[edit]

Helen Hunt began writing after the deaths of her family members. She published her early work anonymously, usually under the name "H.H."[6] Ralph Waldo Emerson admired her poetry and used several of her poems in his public readings. He included five of them in his anthology Parnassus.[7] She is most famous for, Ramona a Novel about a Native American Orphan facing Prejudice and Discrimination. She traveled widely. In the winter of 1873–1874 she was in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in search of a cure for tuberculosis. Here she met the man who would become her second husband. Over the next two years, she published three novels in the anonymous No Name Series, including Mercy Philbrick's Choice and Hetty's Strange History.[8]

In 1879 her interests turned to Native Americans after hearing a lecture in Boston by the Ponca Chief Standing Bear. He described the forcible removal of the Ponca from their Nebraska reservation and transfer to the Quapaw Reservation in Indian Territory, where they suffered from disease, climate and poor supplies. Upset about the mistreatment of Native Americans by government agents, Jackson became an activist. She started investigating and publicizing government misconduct, circulating petitions, raising money, and writing letters to the New York Times on behalf of the Ponca.

A fiery and prolific writer, Jackson engaged in heated exchanges with federal officials over the injustices committed against American Indians. Among her special targets was U.S. Secretary of Interior Carl Schurz, whom she once called "the most adroit liar I ever knew."[9] She exposed the government's violation of treaties with the American Indian tribes. She documented the corruption of US Indian agents, military officers, and settlers who encroached on and stole Indian lands.

Jackson won the support of several newspaper editors who published her reports. Among her correspondents were editor William Hayes Ward of the New York Independent, Richard Watson Guilder of the Century Magazine, and publisher Whitelaw Reid of the New York Daily Tribune.[10]

Jackson also wrote a book, the first published under her own name, condemning state and federal Indian policy, and detailing the history of broken treaties. A Century of Dishonor (1881) called for significant reform in government policy toward Native Americans.[11] Jackson sent a copy to every member of Congress with a quote from Benjamin Franklin printed in red on the cover: "Look upon your hands: they are stained with the blood of your relations."[12] The New York Times later wrote that she "soon made enemies at Washington by her often unmeasured attacks, and while on general lines she did some good, her case was weakened by her inability, in some cases, to substantiate the charges she had made; hence many who were at first sympathetic fell away."[13]

Helen Hunt Jackson, before 1885

Jackson went to southern California for respite. Having been interested in the area's missions and the Mission Indians on an earlier visit, she began an in-depth study. While in Los Angeles, she met Don Antonio Coronel, former mayor of the city and a well-known authority on early Californio life in the area. He had served as inspector of missions for the Mexican government. Coronel told her about the plight of the Mission Indians after 1833. They were buffeted by the secularization policies of the Mexican government, as well as later U.S. policies, both of which led to their removal from mission lands. Under its original land grants, the Mexican government provided for resident Indians to continue to occupy such lands. After taking control of the territory in 1848, the U.S. generally disregarded such Mission Indian occupancy claims. In 1852, there were an estimated 15,000 Mission Indians in Southern California. By the time of Jackson's visit, they numbered fewer than 4,000.[citation needed]

Coronel's account inspired Jackson to action. The U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Hiram Price, recommended her appointment as an Interior Department agent. Jackson's assignment was to visit the Mission Indians, ascertain the location and condition of various bands, and determine what lands, if any, should be purchased for their use. With the help of the US Indian agent Abbot Kinney, Jackson traveled throughout Southern California and documented conditions. At one point, she hired a law firm to protect the rights of a family of Saboba Indians facing dispossession from their land at the foot of the San Jacinto Mountains.

In 1883, Jackson completed her 56-page report.[14] It recommended extensive government relief for the Mission Indians, including the purchase of new lands for reservations and the establishment of more Indian schools. A bill embodying her recommendations passed the U.S. Senate but died in the House of Representatives.

Jackson decided to write a novel to reach a wider audience. When she wrote Coronel asking for details about early California and any romantic incidents he could remember, she explained her purpose:

"I am going to write a novel, in which will be set forth some Indian experiences in a way to move people's hearts. People will read a novel when they will not read serious books."[15] She was inspired by her friend Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). "If I could write a story that would do for the Indian one-hundredth part what Uncle Tom's Cabin did for the Negro, I would be thankful the rest of my life," she wrote.[16]

Although Jackson started an outline in California, she began writing the novel in December 1883 in her New York hotel room, and completed it in about three months. Originally titled In The Name of the Law, she published it as Ramona (1884). It featured Ramona, an orphan girl who was half Indian and half Scots, raised in Spanish Californio society, and her Indian husband Alessandro, and their struggles for land of their own. The characters were based on people known by Jackson and incidents which she had encountered. The book achieved rapid success among a wide public and was popular for generations; it was estimated to have been reprinted 300 times. Its romantic story also contributed to the growth of tourism to Southern California.[17]

Encouraged by the popularity of her book, Jackson planned to write a children's story about Indian issues, but did not live to complete it. Her last letter was written to President Grover Cleveland and said:

"From my death bed I send you message of heartfelt thanks for what you have already done for the Indians. I ask you to read my Century of Dishonor. I am dying happier for the belief I have that it is your hand that is destined to strike the first steady blow toward lifting this burden of infamy from our country and righting the wrongs of the Indian race."[18]

The site of Hunt Jackson's grave in Colorado Springs

Jackson died of stomach cancer in 1885 in San Francisco, California. Her husband arranged for her burial on a one-acre plot on a high plateau overlooking Colorado Springs, Colorado.[19] Her grave was later moved to Evergreen Cemetery in Colorado Springs.[20] At the time of her death, her estate was valued at $12,642.[21]

She used her married names, Helen Hunt and Helen Jackson, but she is most often referred to as Helen Hunt Jackson. The New York Times referred to her as Helen Hunt Jackson in 1885, reporting on her final illness, and in 1886, reporting on visitors to her grave. The name was used during her lifetime by others, though she disliked the practice. "It is not proper to keep one's first married name, after a second marriage", she wrote to Moncure Conway.[22] To Caroline Healey Dall, she admitted she was "positively waging war" against being called "Helen Hunt Jackson".[22]

Critical response and legacy[edit]

Jackson's A Century of Dishonor remains in print, as does a collection of her poetry.

A New York Times reviewer said of Ramona that "by one estimate, the book has been reprinted 300 times."[17] One year after Jackson's death the North American Review called Ramona "unquestionably the best novel yet produced by an American woman" and named it, along with Uncle Tom's Cabin, one of two most ethical novels of the 19th century.[23] Sixty years after its publication, 600,000 copies had been sold. There have been over 300 reissues to date and the book has never been out of print.[24]

The novel has been adapted for other media, including three films, stage, and television productions. Valery Sherer Mathes assessed the writer and her work:[25]

Ramona may not have been another Uncle Tom's Cabin, but it served, along with Jackson's writings on the Mission Indians of California, as a catalyst for other reformers ....Helen Hunt Jackson cared deeply for the Indians of California. She cared enough to undermine her health while devoting the last few years of her life to bettering their lives. Her enduring writings, therefore, provided a legacy to other reformers, who cherished her work enough to carry on her struggle and at least try to improve the lives of America's first inhabitants.

Her friend Emily Dickinson once described her limitations: "she has the facts but not the phosphorescence."[26]

In a review of a film version, a journalist wrote about the novel, calling it "the long and lugubrious romance by Helen Hunt Jackson, over which America wept unnumbered gallons in the eighties and nineties," and complained of "the long, uneventful stretches of the novel."[27] In reviewing the history of her publisher, Houghton Mifflin, a 1970 reviewer noted that Jackson typified the house's success: "Middle aged, middle class, middlebrow."[28]

Jackson herself wrote, "My Century of Dishonor and Ramona are the only things I have done of which I am glad.... They will live, and... bear fruit."[12]

A portion of Jackson's Colorado home has been reconstructed in the Colorado Springs Pioneers Museum and furnished with her possessions.[29]

California's official outdoor play, the annual Ramona Pageant, takes place at the Ramona Bowl outdoor amphitheatre each year in late spring.

Memorials[edit]

  • The largest collection of the papers of Helen Hunt Jackson is held at Colorado College.[30]
  • Ramona High School in Riverside, California is named for her central character.

Works[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ H.H.Jackson (1884) Ramona (NY: Harper)
  2. ^ DeLyser, Dydia (2005), Ramona Memories: Tourism and the Shaping of Southern California, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press)
  3. ^ Edith Colby Banfield, The Place of My Desire: And Other Poems, 1904, page vii
  4. ^ Phillips, Kate (2003). Helen Hunt Jackson: A Literary Life, pp. 168–71, University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21804-3
  5. ^ New York Times: "Add to Sunday's 'Hell List'," May 7, 1917, accessed February 14, 2011
  6. ^ New York Times: "Books and Authors," October 18, 1931, accessed February 14, 2011
  7. ^ New York Times: Renée Tursi, review of Kate Phillips, Helen Hunt Jackson: A Literary Life, September 21, 2003, accessed March 14, 2011
  8. ^ Carol E. Schmudde, "Sincerity, Secrecy, and Lies: Helen Hunt Jackson's No Name Novels," in Studies in American Fiction, Spring 1993
  9. ^ J. Diane Pearson, The Nez Perces in the Indian Territory: Nimiipuu Survival (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008), 128
  10. ^ Mathes, xiv
  11. ^ H.H. Jackson, Century of Dishonor,(NY: Harper, 1882). An edition edited by Andrew Rolle was published by Harper & Row in 1965.
  12. ^ a b Gudrun Grabher, Roland Hagenbüchle, Cristanne Miller, eds., The Emily Dickinson Handbook (University of Massachusetts Press, 1998), 328
  13. ^ New York Times: "Obituary: Mrs. Helen Hunt Jackson," August 13, 1885, accessed March 13, 2011
  14. ^ Jackson (1883) "Report on the Conditions and Needs of the Mission Indians," appears as an appendix to Century of Dishonor, 2nd ed. (Boston 1885)
  15. ^ Mathes, Indian Reform Letters, 298-9
  16. ^ Mathes, Indian Reform Letters, 258
  17. ^ a b New York Times': Richard B. Woodward, review of Ramona Diaries by Didia DeLyser, July 24, 2005, accessed February 14, 2011
  18. ^ New York Times: "'H.H.' to the President," September 29, 1885, accessed February 14, 2011
  19. ^ New York Times: "Mrs. Helen Hunt Jackson's Grave," April 18, 1886, accessed February 14, 2011
  20. ^ Find-a-grave
  21. ^ New York Times: "Literary Notes," February 7, 1887, accessed February 14, 2011
  22. ^ a b Phillips, Kate (2003). Helen Hunt Jackson: A Literary Life, p. 275, University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21804-3
  23. ^ "Helen Hunt Jackson". Women's History: Biographies. Thomson Gale. 1997. Retrieved May 19, 2007. 
  24. ^ "Helen Hunt Jackson (1830–1885)". Literary Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 19, 2007. 
  25. ^ Mathes, 159, 161
  26. ^ Fannie Safier, Wanda Schindley, John Kuehn, Margaret Ferry, eds., Adventures in Appreciation (Harcourt, 1989), 257
  27. ^ New York Times: "'Ramona' Shown upon the Screen," April 6, 1916, accessed February 14, 2011
  28. ^ New York Times: David Dempsey, "The Building of the House," March 1, 1970, accessed February 14, 2011
  29. ^ City of Colorado Springs: "About the Museum", accessed February 14, 2011
  30. ^ "Colorado College Special Collections: Helen Hunt Jackson". 
  31. ^ Helen Hunt Jackson High School; Helen Hunt Jacson Elementary School

Sources[edit]

  • Evelyn I. Banning, Helen Hunt Jackson (NY: Vanguard Press, 1973)
  • Valerie Sherer Mathes, Helen Hunt Jackson and Her Indian Reform Legacy (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1992)
  • Valerie Sherer Mathes, ed., Indian Reform Letters of Helen Hunt Jackson, 1879–1885 (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press)
  • Antoinette May, Helen Hunt Jackson: A Lonely Voice of Conscience (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1987)
  • Dennis McDougal, Privileged Son: Otis Chandler and the Rise and Fall of the L.A. Times Dynasty (Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2001)
  • Kate Phillips, Helen Hunt Jackson: A Literary Life (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003)
  • Ruth Webb O'Dell, Helen Hunt Jackson (NY: Appleton-Century, 1939)
  • Kevin Starr, Inventing the Dream: California through the Progressive Era (NY: Oxford University Press, 1985)
  • Mark I. West., ed., Helen Hunt Jackson: Selected Colorado Writings (Filter Press, 2002)

External links[edit]