Helen Murray Free
|Helen Murray Free|
February 20, 1923 |
|Alma mater||The College of Wooster
Central Michigan University
|Known for||Self-Testing Systems for Diabetes|
|Notable awards||Garvan–Olin Medal (1980)
Kilby Award (1996)
National Inventors Hall of Fame (2000)
National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2009)
Helen Murray Free (born February 20, 1923, Pittsburgh, PA) is a retired American chemist and educator. She received a B.A. in chemistry from The College of Wooster in 1944 and an M.A. in management from Central Michigan University in 1978. In 1947 she married Alfred Free, a fellow researcher in urinalysis. She is most known for her creation of many self-testing systems for diabetes while working at Miles Laboratories, which is now owned by Bayer AG. She currently is an Adjunct Professor of Management at Indiana University South Bend, and a Consultant for Bayer AG.
|Helen Free, “The housemother said 'We girls are going to have to fill in the blanks for science', because the guys were all joining up”, Chemical Heritage Foundation|
Helen Murray was born on February 20, 1923. She was the daughter of James S. Murray, a coal company salesman, and Daisy Piper Murray, who died during an influenza epidemic when Helen was six.
Helen received her early education from the public schools in Youngstown, Ohio, and graduated in 1941 as the valedictorian of Poland Seminary High School. While attending a summer camp at the College of Wooster, Helen set her heart on attending Wooster. Greatly influenced by her high school English teacher, she originally intended to major in English and Latin in hopes of becoming a teacher; however, these plans soon changed. In December 1941 when Pearl Harbor was bombed, many young men either enlisted or were drafted into the army. Because of this, women were encouraged to pursue careers in science, so Helen switched her major to chemistry in which she received her B.S. in 1944. She has said that her switch to chemistry was the “most terrific thing” that ever happened to her.
After graduating from Wooster, Helen immediately began working as a quality control chemist for Miles Laboratories (known as the creators of Alka-Seltzer); however, she aspired to be a researcher as opposed to working in quality control. When Alfred Free had a position open in his biochemistry research group, she interviewed and filled the position. They would marry in 1947 and have six children.
Originally they researched different antibiotics before they moved on to dry reagent systems. They refined the Clinitest, a tablet that measured glucose levels in the urine of diabetic patients, and developed the Acetest, another tablet test for diabetes.
Later, Free worked with her husband to move the tests from tablets to strips, introducing Clinistix (the famous “dip-and-read” test) in 1956. It was the first dip-and-read diagnostic test strip for monitoring glucose in urine. Several other testing strips were developed and added to the market, including Uristix, Ketostix, Dextrostox, Labstix, and a still-current product, Multistix. These products are still used today.
In 1969, Free moved into the Growth and Development Department, and she eventually became the director of Specialty Test Systems in 1976. She was Director of Marketing Services for the Research Products Division when Bayer Diagnostics acquired Miles in 1978.
By 1975, Free had earned seven patents for her improvements in medical and clinical urinalysis testing. In that year, she and her husband co-authored their second book, Urinalysis in Laboratory Practice, which is still a standard work in the field.
She retired in 1982, but continues to work as a consultant for Bayer Diagnostics in Elkhart, Indiana.
After her retirement, she became an active promoter of science education. She has devoted special attention to educating both female and underprivileged students, through programs such as "Kids & Chemistry" and "Expanding Your Horizons."
Awards and honors
In 1993 she was elected president of the American Chemical Society. As president, Free considered her top priority to be to raise public awareness of the positive role chemistry has played in our lives. The ACS named an award in her honor, the Helen M. Free Award in Public Outreach.
The work of Helen and Al Free in developing diagnostic test trips was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society on May 1, 2010, at the ETHOS Science Center in Elkhart, Indiana. 
- Free et al., U.S. Patent 3,087,794, " CHEMICAL TEST FOR DIFFERENTIATING LEUCOCYTES FROM ERYTHROCYTES"
- Free, U.S. Patent 2,912,309, “INDICATOR FOR DETECTING GLUCOSE”
- "Helen M. Free (Oral History)". Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Helen M. Free and Alfred Free". Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Helen Murray Free". National Women's Hall of Fame. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Helen M. Free". Uakron.edu. 2006-07-21. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
- "JCE Online: Biographical Snapshots: Snapshot". Jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2009-05-09.
- "Inventor of the Week: Archive". Web.mit.edu. Retrieved 2009-05-09.
- "The Kilby International Awards". The Kilby International Awards Foundation. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Wayne, Tiffany K. (2011). American women of science since 1900. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 407–408. ISBN 978-1598841589.
- "Helen M. Free Award for Public Outreach". ACS Chemistry for Life. American Chemical Society. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2007). Encyclopedia of world scientists (Rev. ed.). New York: Facts on File. pp. 250–251. ISBN 9781438118826. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Daniel, Debra (2010-11-16). "Obama to present medal to Elkhart woman". WSBT-TV. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
- Obama, Barack. "Remarks by the President in Presenting National Medals of Science and National Medals of Technology and Innovation". The White House. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
- Paiva, Rini (2011). "News & Views: Helen Free Receives National Honor". Clinical Chemistry. Special Issue. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Al and Helen Free and the Development of Diagnostic Test Strips". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. May 1, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- Interview with Helen Murray Free, December 14, 1998, from the Oral History Program at the Chemical Heritage Foundation