|Member of Parliament for Houghton|
7 November 1917|
|Died||1 January 2009
Johannesburg, South Africa
|Political party||United Party
Progressive Reform Party
Progressive Federal Party
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Early life and career
Suzman, a lifelong citizen of South Africa, was born as Helen Gavronsky in 1917 to Samuel and Frieda Gavronsky, Jewish Lithuanian immigrants. Suzman matriculated in 1933 from Parktown Convent, Johannesburg. She studied as an economist and statistician at Witwatersrand University. At age 19, she married Dr Moses Suzman (died 1994), who was considerably older than she was; the couple had two daughters. She returned to university lecturing in 1944, later giving up her teaching vocation to enter politics. She was elected to the House of Assembly in 1953 as a member of the United Party for the Houghton constituency in Johannesburg.
Suzman and eleven other liberal members of the United Party broke away to form the Progressive Party in 1959. At the 1961 general election all the other Progressive MPs lost their seats, leaving Suzman as the sole parliamentarian unequivocally opposed to apartheid for thirteen years from 1961 to 1974. She was often harassed by the police and her phone was tapped by them. She had a special technique for dealing with eavesdropping, which was to blow a whistle into the mouthpiece of the phone.
An eloquent public speaker with a sharp and witty manner, Suzman was noted for her strong public criticism of the governing National Party's policies of apartheid at a time when this was atypical of white South Africans. She found herself even more of an outsider because she was an English-speaking Jewish woman in a parliament dominated by Calvinist Afrikaner men. She was once accused by a minister of asking questions in parliament that embarrassed South Africa, to which she replied: "It is not my questions that embarrass South Africa; it is your answers".
Later, as parliamentary white opposition to apartheid grew, the Progressive Party merged with Harry Schwarz's Reform Party and became the Progressive Reform Party. It was renamed the Progressive Federal Party, and Suzman was joined in parliament by notable liberal colleagues such as Colin Eglin. She spent a total of 36 years in parliament. She visited Nelson Mandela on numerous occasions while he was in prison, and was present when he signed the new constitution in 1996.
Recognition and Legacy
While working from within the system, she earned the respect of Nelson Mandela who praised her courage and credited her with helping to alleviate conditions of incarceration. Always outspoken and independent, she spoke out against the regime but at times opposed Mr. Mandela's policies. She opposed economic sanctions as counter productive and harmful to poor blacks. After Mandela's release "she was prominent among those ... who persuaded him to drop the ANC's revolutionary program in favor of an evolutionary one, retaining a market economy and a parliamentary democracy." She continued to be a critic after the fall of Apartheid. She was critical of Mandela when he praised Muammar Qaddafi as a supporter of human rights. According to her biographer, Lord Robin Renwick, before and after the ANC came to power she continued to speak out against those in power who would "put party and state above the individual whether black or white."
The ANC and SACP were critical of her method of opposition to Apartheid. She was denounced as an agent of colonialism and "part of the system" as well as for her failure to back sanctions. Mandela remained an admirer, saying "the consistency with which you defended the basic values of freedom and the rule of law over the last three decades has earned you the admiration of many South Africans."
Suzman was awarded 27 honorary doctorates from universities around the world, was twice nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize and received countless other awards from religious and human rights organizations around the world. Queen Elizabeth II made her an honorary Dame Commander (Civil Division) of the Order of the British Empire in 1989. She was voted #24 in the Top 100 Great South Africans TV series.
- List of South Africans
- List of Jews from Sub-Saharan Africa
- Progressive Party (South Africa)
- Janet Suzman, her niece and South African actress and director.
- Tran, Mark (1 January 2009). "Anti-apartheid campaigner Helen Suzman dies at 91". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- "Obituary: Helen Suzman". BBC. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- In No Uncertain Terms, Memoirs Helen Suzman Jonathan Ball Publishers
- "Liberal light: The long life of a South African heroine". The Economist. 18 January 2014.
- Burns, John F.; Cowell, Alan (2 January 2009). "Helen Suzman, Relentless Challenger of Apartheid System, Is Dead at 91". New York Times. Retrieved 01-10-2009.
- The Helen Suzman Foundation
- "Obituary: Helen Suzman". The Economist (London, England, UK: The Economist Newspaper Ltd) 390 (8613): 73. 10 January 2009.
- "Côte Saint-Luc adds name to Human Rights Walkway". Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- "King’s confers first Honorary Degree". kcl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- "Anti-apartheid icon Suzman dies". BBC. 2 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- "South African Activist Helen Suzman Dies". CBS News. 1 January 2009.
- Robin Renwick: Helen Suzman. Bright Star in a Dark Chamber. London, Biteback Publ., 2014. ISBN 978-1849546676
- Helen Suzman: In No Uncertain Terms: A South African Memoir. New York, Knopf, 1993. ISBN 0-679-40985-8
- Helen Suzman (BBC radio programme)
- Helen Suzman honoured in Côte Saint-Luc, Quebec Canada
- The Post, 1 January 2009
- Mark Tran, Anti-apartheid campaigner Helen Suzman dies at 91, The Guardian, Thursday 1 January 2009
- Stanley Uys, Helen Suzman: Campaigner who single-handedly carried the anti-racism banner in South Africa's apartheid parliament, The Guardian, Thursday, 1 January 2009
- Anti-Apartheid Activist Helen Suzman Dies at 91 By Scott Bobb Voice of America
- Helen Suzman, Anti-Apartheid Leader, Dies at 91, The New York Times, 1 January 2009
- Helen Suzman: The woman who changed a nation M&G
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