Helen Wills

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Helen Wills
Helen Wills Moody 1932.jpg
Helen Wills in 1932
Full name Helen Newington Wills
Helen Wills Moody
Helen Wills Roark
Country  United States
Born (1905-10-06)October 6, 1905
Centerville, CA, USA
Died January 1, 1998(1998-01-01) (aged 92)
Carmel, CA, USA
Int. Tennis HOF 1959 (member page)
Singles
Highest ranking No. 1 (1927)
Grand Slam Singles results
French Open W (1928, 1929, 1930, 1932)
Wimbledon W (1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1938)
US Open W (1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931)
Other tournaments
Olympic Games Gold medal.svg Gold Medal (1924)
Doubles
Highest ranking No. 1 (1924)
Grand Slam Doubles results
French Open W (1930, 1932)
Wimbledon W (1924, 1927, 1930)
US Open W (1922, 1924, 1925, 1928)
Other Doubles tournaments
Olympic Games Gold medal.svg Gold Medal (1924)
Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results
French Open F (1928, 1929, 1932)
Wimbledon W (1929)
US Open W (1924, 1928)
Team competitions
Wightman Cup (1923, 1927,1929, 1931, 1932)
Olympic medal record
Women's Tennis
Gold 1924 Paris Singles
Gold 1924 Paris Doubles

Helen Newington Wills (October 6, 1905 – January 1, 1998), also known as Helen Wills Moody and Helen Wills Roark, was an American tennis player. She has been described as "the first American born woman to achieve international celebrity as an athlete."[1]

Biography[edit]

She was born Helen Newington Wills in Centerville, California and attended the University of California, Berkeley.

She married Frederick Moody in December 1929. She won approximately one-half of her major championships as "Helen Wills" and one-half as "Helen Wills Moody". Wills divorced Moody in 1937 and married Aidan Roark in October 1939. She died on January 1, 1998, aged 92.

Sporting achievements[edit]

Wills won 31 Grand Slam tournament titles (singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles) during her career, including seven singles titles at the U.S. Championships, eight singles titles at Wimbledon, and four singles titles at the French Championships. Excluding her defaults at the French Championships and Wimbledon in 1926, she reached at least the final of each Grand Slam singles event she played during her career. She never played at the Australian Championships.

Wills also won two Olympic gold medals in Paris in 1924 (singles and doubles), the last year that tennis was an Olympic sport until 1988.[2] Wills was the U.S. girls' singles champion in 1921 and 1922. She won her first women's national title at the age of 17 in 1923, making her the youngest champion at that time. From 1919 through 1938, she amassed a 398–35 (0.919) match record,[3] including a winning streak of at least 158 matches, during which she did not lose a set.[4] She was a member of the U.S. Wightman Cup team in 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, and 1938.

Wills was reported to be an introverted and detached woman. On court, she rarely showed emotion, ignored her opponents, and took no notice of the crowd.[5] Kitty McKane Godfree, who inflicted the only defeat Wills suffered at Wimbledon during her career, said, "Helen was a very private person, and she didn't really make friends very much."[5] Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman said, "Helen was really an unconfident and awkward girl—you have no idea how awkward.... I thought of Helen as an honestly shy person who was bewildered by how difficult it was to please most people."[6] Because of her unchanging expression, Grantland Rice, the American sportswriter, bestowed on Wills the nickname "Little Miss Poker Face".[7] As her success and, ironically, unpopularity with the public increased, she was called "Queen Helen" and "the Imperial Helen".[6] In her own defense, Wills said in her autobiography, "I had one thought and that was to put the ball across the net. I was simply myself, too deeply concentrated on the game for any extraneous thought."[5]

She typically wore a white sailor suit having a pleated knee-length skirt, white shoes, and a white visor.

On February 16, 1926, the 20-year-old Wills met Suzanne Lenglen, six-time Wimbledon champion, in the final of a tournament at the Carlton Club in Cannes. It was the only time they played each other. Public anticipation of their match was immense, resulting in high scalper ticket prices. Roofs and windows of nearby buildings were crowded with spectators, including the King of Sweden. Both players were nervous, with Lenglen drinking brandy and water at one point to calm her nerves.[8] Lenglen won the match 6–3, 8–6 after being down 2–1 in the first set and 5–4 in the second set. Wills had a set point in the second set and believed she had won the point that would have won her the set, but a linesman disagreed. In one of the few times she showed emotion on court, she spoke angrily to the linesman over the call.[8][9] After the match, Lenglen's father advised her that she would lose her next match to Wills if they met again soon, and Lenglen avoided Wills for the remainder of the spring.[10] Wills did not get a second chance to meet Lenglen. Wills had an emergency appendectomy during the 1926 French Championship,[11] which caused her to default her second round match and withdraw from Wimbledon, which also was considered a default. Lenglen turned professional after the 1926 season.

After she returned to the United States, Wills attempted a comeback from her appendectomy, lost two matches, and on the advice of her doctor, withdrew from that year's U.S. Championships. Apart from those two losses, beginning with the 1923 U.S. Championships, Wills lost only four matches in three years: once to Lenglen, twice to Kathleen McKane Godfree, and once to Elizabeth Ryan. Wills had winning overall records against the latter two. In 1927, a revived Wills began her streak of not losing a set until the 1933 Wimbledon Championships.

In an exhibition match in San Francisco on January 28, 1933, Wills defeated Phil Neer, the eighth ranked American male player, 6–3, 6–4.[7][12]

Helen Wills Moody in 1929

During the 17 year period from 1922 through 1938, Wills entered 24 Grand Slam singles events, winning 19, finishing second three times, and defaulting twice as a result of her appendectomy. Her streak of winning U.S. Championships seven times in seven attempts ended when she defaulted to Helen Hull Jacobs during the 1933 final because of a back injury. At the time, Jacobs was leading in the third set. Because she felt the press and fans treated her harshly at the U.S. Championship, Wills decided never to play there again. After taking a year off to recuperate, Wills came back to win the 1935 and 1938 Wimbledon titles before retiring permanently, beating Jacobs both times.

Charlie Chaplin was once asked what he considered to be the most beautiful sight that he had ever seen. He responded that it was "the movement of Helen Wills playing tennis."[13]

According to Wallis Myers of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail, Wills was ranked in the world top ten from 1922 through 1925, 1927 through 1933, and in 1935 and 1938. She was World No. 1 in those rankings nine times, from 1927 through 1933 and in 1935 and 1938.[14] Wills was included in the year-end top ten rankings issued by the United States Lawn Tennis Association from 1922 through 1925, 1927 through 1929, and in 1931 and 1933. She was the top-ranked U.S. player from 1923 through 1925 and 1927 through 1929.[15]

Wills was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1959.[16] In 1981, Wills was inducted into the (San Francisco) Bay Area Athletic Hall of Fame. In 1926 and 1929, Wills appeared on the cover of Time magazine.[17]

Playing style[edit]

When asked in 1941 about whether Wills or Lenglen was the better player, Elizabeth Ryan, who played against both of them in singles and partnered both in doubles, said, "Suzanne, of course. She owned every kind of shot, plus a genius for knowing how and when to use them."[7] However, Wills and Lenglen are seen as having completely different skills and strategies.[18] Wills served and volleyed with unusually powerful forehand and backhand strokes, and she forced her opponents out of position by placing deep shots left and right. Lenglen was more physically nimble, and she was more imaginative—able to quickly change shots in response to conditions. Lenglen was a master of the drop shot and close net work, which was Wills' soft spot. Aware of her weakness at the net, Wills drove her opponents deep into the backcourt as much as possible. Playing Wills was, according to Helen Jacobs, like playing "a machine... with implacable concentration and undeniable skill" yet with little flexibility.[19]

Analogizing Wills's game to poker, George Lott, a 12 time winner of Grand Slam doubles titles and a contemporary of Wills, once said, "Helen’s expression rarely varied and she always tended strictly to business, but her opponents were never in doubt as to what she held: an excellent service, a powerful forehand, a strong backhand, a killer instinct, and no weaknesses. Five of a kind! Who would want to draw against that kind of hand?"[7]

Major finals[edit]

Grand Slam tournaments[edit]

Singles: 22 (19 titles, 3 runner-ups)[edit]

Outcome Year Championship Surface Opponent Score
Runner-up 1922 U.S. Championships Grass United States Molla Bjurstedt 3–6, 1–6
Winner 1923 U.S. Championships Grass United States Molla Bjurstedt 6–2, 6–1
Runner-up 1924 Wimbledon Grass United Kingdom Kathleen McKane 6–4, 4–6, 4–6
Winner 1924 U.S. Championships (2) Grass United States Molla Bjurstedt 6–1, 6–3
Winner 1925 U.S. Championships (3) Grass United Kingdom Kathleen McKane 3–6, 6–0, 6–2
Winner 1927 Wimbledon Grass Spain Lili de Alvarez 6–2, 6–4
Winner 1927 U.S. Championships (4) Grass United Kingdom Betty Nuthall 6–1, 6–4
Winner 1928 French Championships Clay United Kingdom Eileen Bennett Whittingstall 6–1, 6–2
Winner 1928 Wimbledon (2) Grass Spain Lili de Alvarez 6–2, 6–3
Winner 1928 U.S. Championships (5) Grass United States Helen Hull Jacobs 6–2, 6–1
Winner 1929 French Championships (2) Clay France Simone Mathieu 6–3, 6–4
Winner 1929 Wimbledon (3) Grass United States Helen Hull Jacobs 6–1, 6–2
Winner 1929 U.S. Championships (6) Grass United Kingdom Phoebe Holcroft Watson 6–4, 6–2
Winner 1930 French Championships (3) Clay United States Helen Hull Jacobs 6–2, 6–1
Winner 1930 Wimbledon (4) Grass United States Elizabeth Ryan 6–2, 6–2
Winner 1931 U.S. Championships (7) Grass United Kingdom Eileen Bennett Whittingstall 6–4, 6–1
Winner 1932 French Championships (4) Clay France Simone Mathieu 7–5, 6–1
Winner 1932 Wimbledon (5) Grass United States Helen Hull Jacobs 6–3, 6–1
Winner 1933 Wimbledon (6) Grass United Kingdom Dorothy Round 6–4, 6–8, 6–3
Runner-up 1933 U.S. Championships (2) Grass United States Helen Hull Jacobs 6–8, 6–3, 0–3, retired
Winner 1935 Wimbledon (7) Grass United States Helen Hull Jacobs 6–3, 3–6, 7–5
Winner 1938 Wimbledon (8) Grass United States Helen Hull Jacobs 6–4, 6–0

Olympic Games[edit]

Singles: 1 (1 gold medal)[edit]

Outcome Year Championship Surface Opponent Score
Gold 1924 Paris Grass France Pénélope Vlasto 6–2, 6–2

Doubles: 1 (1 gold medal)[edit]

Outcome Year Championship Surface Partner Opponents Score
Gold 1924 Paris Grass United States Hazel Wightman United Kingdom Phyllis Covell
United Kingdom Kathleen McKane
7–5, 8–6

Grand Slam singles tournament timeline[edit]

Tournament 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 Career SR
Australian Championships A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 0 / 0
French Championships1 A A NH A 2R2 A W W W A W A A A A A A 4 / 5
Wimbledon A A F A 1R2 W W W W A W W A W A A W 8 / 10
U.S. Championships F W W W A W W W A W A F A A A A A 7 / 9
SR 0 / 1 1 / 1 1 / 2 1 / 1 0 / 2 2 / 2 3 / 3 3 / 3 2 / 2 1 / 1 2 / 2 1 / 2 0 / 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 0 / 0 1 / 1 19 / 24

NH = tournament not held.

A = did not participate in the tournament.

SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number of those tournaments played.

1Through 1923, the French Championships were open only to French nationals (or members of French tennis clubs). The World Hard Court Championships (WHCC), actually played on clay in Paris or Brussels, began in 1912 and were open to all nationalities. The results from that tournament are shown here for 1922 and 1923. The Olympics replaced the WHCC in 1924, as the Olympics were held in Paris. Beginning in 1925, the French Championships were open to all nationalities, with the results shown here beginning with that year.

2 During the 1926 French Championships Helen Wills had an appendectomy that hadn't healed by the time Wimbledon started. Though one week prior the tournament was informed she wouldn't play, she was defaulted from her opening round match at Wimbledon.

Education[edit]

Wills was tutored by her mother at home until she was 8 years old and graduated from Anna Head School in Berkeley in the top of her class.

Wills attended the University of California, Berkeley on an academic scholarship, and graduated in 1925 as a member of Phi Beta Kappa honor society.[20]

In 1998, Wills bequeathed US $10 million to the University of California, Berkeley to fund the establishment of a Neuroscience institute. The resulting institute, the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, began in 1999 and is now home to more than 40 faculty researchers and 36 graduate students.

Personal life[edit]

Wills was born in Centerville now Fremont, California, near San Francisco. She lived in the small town of Byron, California, and practiced her tennis game at the Byron Hot Springs resort.[21]

Wills wrote a coaching manual, Tennis (1928), her autobiography, Fifteen-Thirty: The Story of a Tennis Player (1937), and a mystery, Death Serves an Ace (1939, with Robert Murphy).[22] She also wrote articles for the Saturday Evening Post and other magazines.

Senator James D. Phelan befriended Wills and invited her as a frequent guest to his estate, Villa Montalvo. Wills wrote poetry as a hobby, and presented two of her works, "The Awakening" and "The Narrow Street", to a literary competition hosted by Phelan in 1926. Wills settled laurel wreaths over the heads of the winners. Phelan himself wrote a poem dedicated to Wills.[23] In 1928, Phelan commissioned Haig Patigian, sculptor and fellow member of the Bohemian Club, to create a likeness of Wills. Patigian completed a marble bust of Wills in October 1928, and Phelan donated it to the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum. At his death in 1930, Phelan left Wills $20,000 ($282,351 today) in his will, "in appreciation of her winning the tennis championship for California."[24]

Wills met painter Diego Rivera and his wife Frida Kahlo at the San Francisco studio of her friend sculptor Ralph Stackpole in 1930. Rivera sketched Wills and asked her to model as the main figure of "California" for the 30-foot-high mural Allegory of California he was painting for the City Club of the San Francisco Stock Exchange. The committee of the Stock Exchange found out that Wills was being portrayed and insisted that no living person be represented in the mural. Subsequently, Rivera darkened the hair, broadened the eyes, changed the corners of the mouth and angled the jawline to remove any specific resemblance to Wills. A portrait of Stackpole's son Peter Stackpole holding a model airplane remained unnoticed in the mural.[25]

Wills painted all her life, giving exhibitions of her paintings and etchings in New York galleries. She personally drew all of the illustrations in her book Tennis. Wills remained an avid tennis player into her 80s.

She died in Carmel, California of natural causes, aged 92. She had no children.

In 1994 in an interview with William Simon, Inside Tennis reporter, in Carmel California, she gave this rendition of what ended her career:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Finn, Robin (1998-01-03). "Helen Wills Moody, Dominant Champion Who Won 8 Wimbledon Titles, Dies at 92". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  2. ^ Patricia Henry Yeomans (June 2003). "Hazel Wightman and Helen Wills – Tennis at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games". Journal of Olympic History – Volume 11 – Number 2. International Society of Olympic Historians. pp. 19–23. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Collins, Bud; Zak Hollander (1994). Bud Collins' Modern Encyclopedia of Tennis. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-8103-9443-X. 
  4. ^ Billie Jean King with Cynthia Starr (1988). We Have Come a Long Way: The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 31. ISBN 0-07-034625-9. 
  5. ^ a b c Billie Jean King with Cynthia Starr (1988). We Have Come a Long Way: The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 32. ISBN 0-07-034625-9. 
  6. ^ a b Billie Jean King with Cynthia Starr (1988). We Have Come a Long Way: The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 33. ISBN 0-07-034625-9. 
  7. ^ a b c d Fein, Paul (April 2006). "Who is the greatest female player ever?" (– Scholar search). Inside Tennis. Archived from the original on January 2, 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-26. [dead link]
  8. ^ a b "Wills v. Lenglen". Time Magazine. 1926-03-01. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  9. ^ "Suzanne Retains Her Title". Lawrence Journal-World. Feb 16, 1926. p. 1. 
  10. ^ New York Times, February 18, 1926
  11. ^ Billie Jean King with Cynthia Starr (1988). We Have Come a Long Way: The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 39. ISBN 0-07-034625-9. 
  12. ^ "This Day in Sports: January 28". USA Today. January 31, 1999. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  13. ^ My Autobiography (1964) – Charlie Chaplin, page 358
  14. ^ Collins, Bud (2008). The Bud Collins History of Tennis: An Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book. New York, N.Y: New Chapter Press. pp. 695, 701–2. ISBN 0-942257-41-3. 
  15. ^ United States Tennis Association (1988). 1988 Official USTA Tennis Yearbook. Lynn, Massachusetts: H.O. Zimman, Inc. p. 260. 
  16. ^ "Helen Wills Moody Roark, Tilden in Net Hall of Fame", Newport Daily News, August 17, 1959, page 12
  17. ^ Time magazine cover search results
  18. ^ Robertson, Max (1974). The Encyclopedia of Tennis. Viking Press. p. 173. Helen Wills and Suzanne Lenglen played entirely different styles of tennis. 
  19. ^ Jacobs, Helen. "My Matches Against Helen Wills Moody". In Caryl Phillips. The Right Set: A Tennis Anthology. pp. 73–74. 
  20. ^ "UC Berkeley Online Tour: Famous Alumni". Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  21. ^ Jensen, Carole A.; East Contra Costa Historical Society (2008). Brentwood. Images of America. Arcadia Publishing. p. 116. ISBN 0738558257. 
  22. ^ Los Angeles Times. January 3, 1998. Julie Cart. Tennis Legend Helen Wills Moody Dies
  23. ^ A Day In The Hills, September 18, 1926, Villa Montalvo. Archive at San Jose State University.
  24. ^ San Francisco Chronicle, item from August 16, 1930. Laura Perkins, August 12, 2005, "San Francisco hotel workers ratify three-year contract." Retrieved on August 4, 2009.
  25. ^ Poletti, Therese; Tom Paiva (2008). Art Deco San Francisco: The Architecture of Timothy Pflueger. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1568987560. 
  26. ^ Inside Tennis. April 2006. For the Love of the Game: 25 Years in Tennis. Bill Simons

External links[edit]