|Olympic medal record|
|Gold||1928 Amsterdam||Individual foil|
|Silver||1936 Berlin||Individual foil|
Helene Mayer (December 20, 1910 – October 15, 1953) was a world champion Olympic fencer who competed for Nazi Germany in the 1936 Summer Olympics, despite having been forced to leave Germany and resettle in the United States because she was of partial Jewish family background.
Mayer was born in Offenbach am Main, the daughter of Ida (née Becker) and Ludwig Mayer, a physician. Her father was Jewish and her mother was Lutheran. According to the Daily Herald, "Most accounts of Mayer's life say she did not consider herself Jewish".
Mayer was only 13 when she won the German women's foil championship in 1924. By 1930, she had won 6 German championships.
She finished 5th at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympic Games. She then remained in the U.S. in 1933 to study at the University of Southern California, earned a certificate in Social Work, and fenced for the USC Fencing Club.
Berlin Olympics and controversy
In 1933 she learned that she had been expelled from the Offenbach Fencing Club as part of a Nazi purge of Jewish athletes. She fled persecution in Germany after Hitler's rise to power because of her status as a Mischling, having a Jewish father.
The Amateur Athletic Union then voted to boycott the 1936 Olympics, to be held in Berlin, unless Jews were allowed to take part in the German trials and compete for Germany in the Olympics. As a gesture of compliance, the German Olympic Committee invited Mayer to join the national team.
She accepted, hoping to be accepted back into German society, and returned to Germany to compete in the 1936 Summer Olympics, despite protests from the American Jewish community and other Jewish athletes,
She won a silver medal. Controversially, she wore a swastika and extended her right arm in the Nazi salute on the medal stand during the medal ceremony. This rankled many, but others explained that she was trying to protect her family. Although her Jewish father had died in 1931, her mother and two brothers had continued to live in Germany. Mayer considered herself German and wanted to represent her country, but she was not accepted back into German society.
She was one of a number of Jewish athletes who won medals at the Nazi Olympics in Berlin in 1936.
In 1928 she won the Italian national championship.
She was the European champion in 1929 and 1931.
She was World Foil Champion in 1929–31 and 1937.
Ultimately, she settled in the United States and had a successful fencing career, winning the US women's foil championship 8 times from 1934–46 (1934, '35, '37, '38, '39, '41, '42, and '46).
Return to Germany and death
Hall of Fame
- 1924: German Foil Champion
- 1925: German Foil Champion
- 1926: German Foil Champion
- 1927: German Foil Champion
- 1928: German Foil Champion
- Olympic Gold Medal, Foil, German Team
- Winner Foil, Italian National Championships
- 1929: German Foil Champion
- World Foil Champion
- 1930: German Foil Champion
- 1931: World Foil Champion
- 1932: German Olympic Foil Team
- 1934: U.S. Foil Champion
- 1935: U.S. Foil Champion
- 1936: Olympic Silver Medal, Foil, German Team
- 1937: U.S. Foil Champion
- World Foil Champion
- 1938: U.S. Foil Champion
- 1939: U.S. Foil Champion
- 1941: U.S. Foil Champion
- 1942: U.S. Foil Champion
- 1946: U.S. Foil Champion