Helenium

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Helenium
Helenium autumnale1.jpg
Helenium autumnale
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Helenieae
Genus: Helenium
L.
Species

See text.

Helenium is a genus of about 40 species of annuals and deciduous herbaceous perennials in the daisy family Asteraceae native to the Americas. They bear yellow or orange daisy-like composite flowers. A number of these species (particularly Helenium autumnale) have the common name sneezeweed, based on the former use of their dried leaves in making snuff, inhaled to cause sneezing that would supposedly rid the body of evil spirits. Larger species may grow up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall.[1]

Helenium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Phymatopus behrensii.

Taxonomy[edit]

Helenium species include:

Cultivation[edit]

Numerous cultivars have been developed for garden use - mainly from H. autumnale and H. bigelovii. They are useful for late summer and fall bloom, usually in less formal compositions. They are appropriate for native gardens in areas where they are indigenous, and they look wonderfully in bouquets. Annual species are easily grown from seed, and perennials should be divided every year in order to retain their vigor. The soil should be fertile with a generous amount of organic manner in the form of compost, manure or other decayed organic matter in addition to, perhaps, an application of a complete fertilizer in spring. Heleniums should be grown in full sun average to moist soil with good drainage. They are drought tolerant, but should be watered on planting and regularly until established. The following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Baudirektor Linne'[2]
  • 'Blütentisch'[3]
  • 'Butterpat'[4]
  • 'Feuersiegel'[5]
  • 'Gartensonne'[6]
  • 'Karneol'[7]
  • 'Moerheim Beauty'[8]
  • 'Ring of Fire'[9]

Helenium Hybrid has brilliant yellow petals surround spherical brown cones covered with golden pollen. It grows to 0.9 metres (3 ft) tall and takes up about 0.6 metres (2 ft) of space, the hardiness zone rating is 4-9. Its Flowers appear for six weeks from mid to late summer and attract butterflies in droves. It provides a splash of colour when many other perennials are starting to fade, it may accompany ornamental grasses, Phlox and Liatris.


References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Helenium hybrid "Moerheim Beauty" [1]