Hellenic calendars

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The Hellenic calendar—or more properly, the Hellenic calendars, for there was no uniform calendar imposed upon all of Classical Greece—began in most Greek states between Autumn and Winter except the Attic calendar, which began in Summer. The Greeks, as early as the time of Homer, appear to have been perfectly familiar with the division of the year into the twelve lunar months but no intercalary month Embolimos or day is then mentioned. Independent of the division of a month into days, it was divided into periods according to the increase and decrease of the moon. Thus, the first day or new moon was called Noumenia. The month in which the year began, as well as the names of the months, differed among the states, and in some parts even no names existed for the months, as they were distinguished only numerically, as the first, second, third, fourth month, etc.

Calendars by region[edit]

Attic[edit]

See Attic calendar

  • Hekatombaion - Εκατομβαιών (~ 15 June)
  • Metageitnion - Μεταγειτνιών
  • Boedromion - Βοηδρομιών
  • Pyanepsion - Πυανοψιών (later Πυανεψιών)
  • Maimakterion - Μαιμακτηριών
  • Poseideon - Ποσιδεών (later Ποσειδεών)
  • Gamelion - Γαμηλιών
  • Anthesterion - Ανθεστηριών
  • Elaphebolion - Ελαφηβολιών
  • Mounichion - Μουνυχιών (later Μουνιχιών)
  • Thargelion - Θαργηλιών
  • Skirophorion - Σκιροφοριών

Boeotian[edit]

  • Bucatios - Βουκάτιος (~ 23 December)
  • Hermaios - Ἑρμαίος
  • Prostaterios - Προστατήριος
  • Agrionios - Ἀγριώνιος
  • Theilouthios - Θειλούθιος
  • -
  • Homoloios - Ὁμολώιος
  • Hippodromios - Ἱπποδρόμιος
  • Panamos - Πάναμος
  • Pamboiotios - Παμβοιώτιος
  • Damatrios - Δαμάτριος
  • Alalcomenios - Ἀλαλκομένιος

Cretan[edit]

  • Thesmophorion (~ 23 September)
  • Hermaios -
  • Eiman
  • Matarchios
  • Agyios
  • Dioscouros
  • Theodosios
  • Pontos
  • Rhabinthios
  • Hyperberetos
  • Necysios
  • Basilios

Delphic[edit]

  • Bucatios (~September)
  • Heraios
  • Apellaios
  • -
  • Dadaphorios
  • Poitropios
  • Bysios
  • Artemisios
  • Heracleios
  • Boathoos
  • Ilaios
  • Theoxenios

Epirotic[edit]

only alphabetically

  • Agrianios
  • Apellaios
  • Gamilios
  • Haliotropios
  • Kraneios
  • Panamos
  • Phoinikaios
  • Psydros

and the months of the Antikythera mechanism, which are Epirotic and the order in known from the sequence on the dial of the Antikythera mechanism:

  • ΦΟΙΝΙΚΑΙΟΣ, PHOENIKEOS, Corinthian name, mountain in Corinth
  • ΚΡΑΝΕΙΟΣ, KRANEIOS, Kranion is a region in Corinth
  • ΛΑΝΟΤΡΟΠΙΟΣ, LANOTROPIOS, Heliotropios and Haliotropios (Doric), the Sun changes inclination, hence June?
  • ΜΑΧΑΝΕΥΣ [ΜΗΧΑΝΕΥΣ], MACHANEUS, Mechanic, referred to Zeus, Jupiter that finds new solutions, ΜΑΧΑΝΕΟΣ in Corfu
  • ΔΩΔΕΚΑΤΕΥΣ, DODEKATEUS, ΔΥΩΔΕΚΑΤΟΣ in Corfu
  • ΕΥΚΛΕΙΟΣ, EUKLEIOS,
  • ΑΡΤΕΜΙΣΙΟΣ, ARTEMISIOS referred to Artemis, Diana, ΑΡΤΕΜΙTΙΟΣ in Corfu
  • ΨΥΔΡΕΥΣ, PSYDREUS
  • ΓΑΜΕΙΛΙΟΣ, GAMILIOS, ΓΑΜΗΛΙΩΝ, seventh month of the Attic year, fashionable time for weddings.
  • ΑΓΡΙΑΝΙΟΣ, AGRIANIOS
  • ΠΑΝΑΜΟΣ, PANAMOS
  • ΑΠΕΛΛΑΙΟΣ, APELLAIOS

Laconian[edit]

  • Herasios (~October)
  • Apellaios
  • Diosthyos
  • -
  • Eleusinios
  • Gerastios
  • Artemisios
  • Delphinios
  • Phliastos
  • Hecatombeus
  • Carneios
  • Panamos

Macedonian[edit]

See Macedonian calendar

  • Dios (~October)
  • Apellaios
  • Audynaios
  • Peritios
  • Dystros
  • Xanthikos
  • Artemisios
  • Daisios
  • Panamos
  • Loios
  • Gorpiaios
  • Hyperberetaios

Rhodian[edit]

on the Rhodian calendar[1]

  • Agrianios (~ 7 January)
  • Badromios
  • Theudasios
  • Dalios
  • Artamitios
  • Panamos and Panamos embolimos
  • Pedageitnyos
  • Hyacynthios
  • Carneios
  • Thesmophorios
  • Sminthios
  • Diosthyos

Sicilian[edit]

  • Thesmophorios (~October)
  • Dalios
  • -
  • Agrianios
  • -
  • Theudasios
  • Artamitios
  • -
  • Badromios
  • Hyacinthios
  • Carneios
  • Panamos

References[edit]

  1. ^ Origines kalendarlae hellenicae [1] by Edward Greswell