Helminthic therapy

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A larva under a microscope resembling a worm with one end across the other
Infectious Necator americanus L3 larva.
Invisible to the naked eye, from 10 to 35 are applied to the skin in therapy, either in a single dose or in multiple smaller doses over the course of two or three months.

Helminthic therapy, an experimental type of immunotherapy, is the treatment of autoimmune diseases and immune disorders by means of deliberate infestation with a helminth or with the ova of a helminth. Helminths are parasitic worms such as hookworms, whipworms, and threadworms that have evolved to live within a host organism on which they rely for nutrients.[1] These worms are members of two phyla; Nematoda, which are primarily used in human helminthic therapy, and Platyhelminths.[1]

Helminthic therapy consists of the inoculation of the patient with specific parasitic intestinal nematodes (helminths). A number of such organisms are currently being investigated for their use as treatment including: Trichuris suis ova (TSO),[2][3] commonly known as pig whipworm eggs; Necator americanus,[4] commonly known as hookworms; Trichuris trichiura ova,[4] commonly referred to as human whipworm eggs; Hymenolepis diminuta, commonly known as rat tapeworm, cysticerci, Ascaris lumbricoides[5][6] commonly known as human giant roundworm; Strongyloides stercoralis[5][6] commonly known as human roundworm; Enterobius vermicularis[5][6] commonly known as threadworm or seatworm; and Hymenolepis nana[5][6] also known as dwarf tapeworm.

Current research targets Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis, and asthma.

Helminthic infection has emerged as one possible explanation for the low incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in less developed countries, together with the significant and sustained increase in autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries.[7][8][9][10]

Incidence of autoimmune diseases and parasitic infestation[edit]

While it is recognized that there is probably a genetic disposition in certain individuals for the development of autoimmune diseases, the rate of increase in incidence of autoimmune diseases is not a result of genetic changes in humans; the increased rate of autoimmune-related diseases in the industrialized world is occurring in too short a time to be explained in this way. There is evidence that one of the primary reasons for the increase in autoimmune diseases in industrialized nations is the significant change in environmental factors over the last century. Environmental factors include exposure to certain artificial chemicals[11] from industrial processes, medicines, farming, and food preparation. It is posited that the absence of exposure to certain parasites, bacteria, and viruses is playing a significant role in the development of autoimmune diseases in the more sanitized and industrialized Western nations.[12][13]

Lack of exposure to naturally occurring pathogens and parasites may result in an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. Correlational data has shown the prevalence of helminthic infections to be greatest south of the equator where the rates of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis are low.[14][15] This is consistent with the hygiene hypothesis which suggests that helminthic infections protect individuals from developing auto-immune diseases rather than being an agent responsible for inducing them.[7][16][17] A complete explanation of how environmental factors play a role in autoimmune diseases has still not been proposed. Epidemiological studies such as the meta-analysis by Leonardi-Bee et al.,[7] however, have helped to establish the link between parasitic infestation and their protective role in autoimmune disease development.

Genetic research on the interleukin genes (IL genes) shows that helminths have been a major selective force on a subset of these human genes. In other words, helminths have shaped the evolution of at least parts of the human immune system, especially the genes responsible for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease — and provides further evidence that it is the absence of parasites, and in particular helminths, that has likely caused a substantial portion of the increase in incidence of diseases of immune dysregulation and inflammation in industrialized countries in the last century.[18] A systematic approach was used to determine the relative pressure pathogens, such as helminths, viruses or bacteria exerted upon a selection of interleukin genes. Fumagalli et al. (2009) examined 52 globally dispersed human populations along with the diverse levels of pathogen richness, for >650,00 SNPs within 91 IL or IL receptor genes. Helminths were identified as a major selective pressure on a subset of IL genes. Through additional genome-wide association studies the subset of IL genes were associated with the human susceptibility to IBS and coeliac disease.[18]

Hypotheses[edit]

Although the mechanism(s) of autoimmune disease development is not fully defined, there is broad agreement that the majority of autoimmune diseases are caused by inappropriate immunological responses to innocuous antigens, driven by a branch of the immune system known as the TH1 type immune response. Extra-cellular antigens primarily trigger the TH2 response, as observed with allergies, while intracellular antigens trigger a TH1 response. Th cells can be divided into subtypes based on the characteristic cytokines they secrete.[19] Th2 immune responses result in the release of cytokines associated with inflammation reduction such as interleukin IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. These cytokines are thought to improve the symptoms of many autoimmune disorders.[19] Conversely, Th1 immune responses are characterized by the cytokines interferon gamma (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), both of which are thought to increase inflammation and worsen the progression of autoimmune diseases and their symptoms.[19] The relationship between these two types of immune response is a central theme of the biological basis of the hygiene hypothesis, which suggests that there is a regulatory action between the two types of response. However, the observation that allergies and autoimmune response are increasing at a similar rate in industrialized nations appears to undermine the hygiene hypothesis.

The hygiene hypothesis proposes that appropriate immune response is in part learned by exposure to microorganisms and parasites, and in part regulated by their presence. In industrialized nations, humans are exposed to somewhat lower levels of these organisms, potentially resulting in unbalanced immune systems. The development of vaccines, hygienic practices, and effective medical care have diminished or eliminated the prevalence and impact of many parasitic organisms, as well as bacterial and viral infections. This has been of obvious benefit with the effective eradication of many diseases that have plagued human beings. However, while many severe diseases have been eradicated, humans' exposure to benign and apparently beneficial parasites has also been reduced commensurately. The central thrust of the hypothesis is, therefore, that correct development of T regulator cells in individuals may depend on exposure to organisms such as lactobacilli, various mycobacteria, and helminths.[10] Lack of exposure to sufficient benign antigens, particularly during childhood, is sometimes suggested as a cause of the increase in autoimmune diseases and diseases for which chronic inflammation is a major component in the industrialized world.

Two refinements to the hygiene hypothesis exist, the "Old Friends" hypothesis, and the "Biome Depletion theory." [20][21]

The old friends hypothesis modifies the hygiene hypothesis by proposing that T regulator cells can only become fully effective if they are stimulated by exposure to microorganisms and parasites that have low levels of pathogenicity and that have coexisted universally with human beings throughout our evolutionary history. This hypothesis has recently been given more credibility by a study demonstrating the impact of infectious organisms, and helminths in particular, upon genes responsible for the production of various cytokines, some involved in the regulation of inflammation, in particular those associated with the development of Crohn's Disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease.[18]

The Biome Depletion theory posits that the absence of an entire class of organisms from the human inner ecology (biome) is a profound evolutionary mismatch that destabilizes the immune system, resulting in disease. The biome is "depleted." The way to correct the dysregulation is to "reconstitute", or replenish, keystone species in healthy individuals prior to the development of human diseases of modern living. As keynote organisms, helminths are central to correcting immune dysregulation, and their replenishment may be a disease preventative. [22] Biome depletion theory departs from a drug model approach, which remains the current focus of helminthic therapy as evidenced by numerous clinical trials now underway for existing disease states.

Proposed Mechanism of Action[edit]

Experimental data support the hypothesis that clinically induced helminthic infections have the ability to alleviate or mitigate immune responses.[3][5][6][17][23] Most autoimmune disorders are believed to involve hyperactive Th1 or Th17 immune responses that are down regulated by the promotion of a Th2 response by helminths.[24] Helminths secrete immunoregulatory molecules that promote the induction of regulatory T-cells while inhibiting the function of antigen presenting cells and other T-cells.[1] As such, helminths attempt to restore homeostasis by shifting a hyperactive Th1 pro-inflammatory response to a Th2 response with reduced inflammation.[19] Human and animal studies have provided evidence of decreased Th1 and Th17 immune responses with a shift to Th2 cytokine production resulting in significantly decreased levels of IL-12 and IFNy with simultaneous increases in the regulatory T cells, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 of test subjects.[3][5][6][17] These observations indicate that helminth therapy can provide protection against autoimmune disease not only through prevention, since helminths can be present before autoimmune disease develops, but also after autoimmune responses are initiated.[6] Furthermore, Th2 responses rarely kill the parasitic worms.[1] Rather, the Th2 response limits the infection by reducing the viability and reproductive capacity of the parasite.[1]

Given the down regulation of Th1 and Th17 immune responses with helminthic therapy, immune responses to other pathogens and allergens may be suppressed.[1] Consequently, unmonitored and uncontrolled helminthic infections may be associated with supressed immunity to the viruses and bacteria that normally trigger Th1 and Th17 immune responses required for protection against them leading to illness or disease.[1]

Research[edit]

Evidence in support of the idea that helminthic infections reduce the severity of autoimmune diseases is primarily derived from animal models.[17] Studies conducted on mice and rat models of colitis, muscular sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and asthma have shown helminth-infected subjects to display protection from the disease.[1] While helminths are often considered a homogenous group, considerable differences exist between species and the utilization of species in clinical research varies between human and animal trials.[17] As such, caution must be exercised when interpreting the results from animal models.[17]

Helminthic therapy is currently being studied as a treatment for several (non-viral) autoimmune diseases in humans including celiac disease,[25][26] Crohn's disease,[27][28][29][30] multiple sclerosis,[31] ulcerative colitis,[32] and atherosclerosis.[33] It is currently unknown which clinical dose or species of helminth is the most effective method of treatment. Hookworms have been linked to reduced risk of developing asthma, while Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm infection) was associated with an increased risk of asthma.[7] Similarly, Hymenolepis nana, Trichoris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercolaris, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris sis ova have all been found to lower the number of symptom exacerbations, reduce the number of symptom relapses, and decrease the number of new or enlarging brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis at doses ranging from 1,180 - 9,340 eggs/gm.[3][5][6]

Trichuris suis ova or TSO has been used in most cases to treat autoimmune disorders because it is thought to be non-pathogenic in humans and therefore has been rendered as safe.[34] The use of TSO has been granted by the USA Food and Drug Administration as an investigational medicinal product (IMP).[35] While in the UK, the hookworm Necator americanus has been granted an IMP license by the Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Authority.[36] This hookworm is likely to be relatively safe, but can cause some gastrointestinal complications. [37]

The general ideal characteristics for a therapeutic helminth are as follows:[38]

  • Little or no pathogenic potential
  • Does not multiple in the host
  • Cannot be directly spread to close contacts
  • Produces a self-limited colonization in humans
  • Produces an asymptomatic colonization in humans
  • Does not alter behaviour in patients with depressed immunity
  • Is not affected by most commonly used medications
  • Can be eradicated with an anti-helminthic drug*
  • Can be isolated free of other potential pathogens
  • Can be isolated or produced in large numbers
  • Can be made stable for transport and storage
  • Easy to administer

Potential Side Effects[edit]

Helminths are extremely successful parasites capable of establishing long-lasting infections within a host.[1] During this time, helminths compete with the host organism's cells for nutrient resources and thus possess the potential to cause harm.[1] While the majority of clinically infected individuals are asymptomatic, helminthic therapy does carry a number of potential side effects that can be alleviated through the use of anti-helminthic medications.[1][5][6] The most common clinical symptoms of helminthic therapy include;

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  33. ^ Magen E, Bychkov V, Ginovker A, Kashuba E.Chronic Opisthorchis felineus infection attenuates atherosclerosis - An autopsy study.Int J Parasitol. 2013 Jun 19. pii: S0020-7519(13)00153-7. doi:
  34. ^ Elliott, David; Summers, Robert W; Weinstock, Joel V (2007). "Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation". International Journal for Parasitology 37: 457-464. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.12.009. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
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  36. ^ Pritchard, D,I. (2011). "Worm therapy:". Journal of Helminthology 85 (03): 225-227. doi:10.1017/S0022149X11000204. 
  37. ^ Elliott, David; Summers, Robert W; Weinstock, Joel V (2007). "Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation". International Journal for Parasitology 37: 457-464. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.12.009. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
  38. ^ Elliott, David; Summers, Robert W; Weinstock, Joel V (2007). "Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation". International Journal for Parasitology 37: 457-464. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.12.009. Retrieved 22 January 2015.