Temporal range: Early Miocene to Recent
|Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum|
Heloderma, the only genus of the family Helodermatidae, consists of venomous lizards native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and as far south as Guatemala. It includes five separate species, with two subspecies. Their closest living relatives are the anguid lizards.
Helodermatids (or beaded lizards) are large, stocky, slow-moving reptiles that prefer semiarid habitats. Their tails are short and used as fat storage organs. They are covered with small, nonoverlapping, bead-like scales, with osteoderms on the undersides of their bodies. Both species are dark in color, with yellowish or pinkish markings.
Members of the family are venomous. Venom glands are located in their lower jaws, unlike snakes' venom glands, which are located in their upper jaws. Also, unlike snakes, helodermatids lack the musculature to inject venom. The venom is typically used only in defense, rather than in subduing prey, and the lizard must chew on its victim to work the venom into the flesh. Venom glands are believed to have evolved early in the lineage leading to the modern helodermatids, as their presence is indicated even in the 65-million-year-old fossil genus Paraderma. Venom production among lizards was long thought to be unique to this genus, but researchers studying venom production have proposed many others also produce some venom, all placed in the clade Toxicofera, which includes all snakes and 13 other families of lizards. However, except for snakes, helodermatids, and possibly varanids, envenomation is not considered medically significant for humans.
- Genus Heloderma
- H. alvarezi (Bogert & Martin del Campo, 1956); Chiapan beaded lizard
- H. exasperatum (Bogert & Martin Del Campo, 1956); Rio Fuerte beaded lizard
- H. charlesbogerti (Campbell & Vannini, 1988); Guatemalan beaded lizard
- H. horridum (Wiegmann, 1829); Mexican beaded lizard
- H. suspectum, Gila monster
Members of the genus Heloderma have many extinct relatives in the Helodermatidae whose evolutionary history may be traced back to the Cretaceous period, such as Estesia. The genus Heloderma has existed since the Miocene, when H. texana lived, and fragments of osteoderms from the Gila monster have been found in late Pleistocene (8,000-10,000 years ago) deposits near Las Vegas, Nevada. Because the helodermatids have remained relatively unchanged morphologically, they are occasionally regarded as living fossils. Although the beaded lizard and the Gila monster appear closely related to the monitor lizards (varanids) of Africa, Asia, and Australia, the wide geographical separation and unique features not found in the varanids indicates they are better placed in a separate family.
The type species is Heloderma horridum, which was first described in 1829 by Arend Weigmann. Although he originally assigned it the generic name Trachyderma, he changed it to Heloderma six months later, which means "studded skin", from the Ancient Greek words hêlos (ηλος)—the head of a nail or stud—and derma (δερμα), meaning skin.
H. horridum, H. exasperatum, and both subspecies of H. suspectum are frequently found in captivity, and are well represented in zoos throughout much of the world. They are often captive-bred for the exotic pet trade, and can command high prices. The other two species of Heloderma are extremely rare, and only a few captive specimens are known.
- . Fry, B. et al. (February 2006). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes" (PDF). Nature 439 (7076): 584–588. doi:10.1038/nature04328. PMID 16292255.
- Gila Monster and Mexican Beaded Lizard: Helodermatidae - Physical Characteristics
- Bauer, Aaron M. (1998). Cogger, H.G. & Zweifel, R.G., ed. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 156. ISBN 0-12-178560-2.
- Richard L. Cifelli, Randall L. Nydam. 1995. Primitive, helodermatid-like platynotan from the early cretaceous of Utah. Herpetologica. 51(3):286-291.
- King, Ruth Allen; Pianka, Eric R.; King, Dennis (2004). Varanoid Lizards of the World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34366-6.
- Mattison, Chris (1998). Lizards of the World. London: Blandford. ISBN 0-7137-2357-2.
- Wiegmann, A.F.A. (1829). "Über die Gesetzlichkeit in der geographischen Verbreitung der Saurier". Isis (Oken) 22 (3–4): 418–428.
Ariano-Sánchez, D. 2008. Envenomation by a wild Guatemalan beaded lizard Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti. Clinical toxicology 46 (9): 897-899. 
Ariano-Sánchez, D. & G. Salazar. 2007. Notes on the distribution of the endangered lizard, Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti, in the dry forests of eastern Guatemala: an application of multi-criteria evaluation to conservation. Iguana 14: 152-158. 
Ariano-Sánchez, D. 2006. The Guatemalan beaded lizard: endangered inhabitant of a unique ecosystem. Iguana 13: 178-183. 
CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA. 2007. Resume of the 14th Convention of the Parts. The Hague. The Netherlands.
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