Help:Cite errors/Cite error ref no key

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This page will help you to fix the error message:

The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad name (see the help page).

  • If you need help with a particular problem, please discuss it on the article talk page or at the Help desk.
  • If you have read this help page and find something missing or confusing, please discuss it at the main talk page.
  • Please reference this page and the page where you have the problem so we can understand your issues.
  • For basic information on the footnotes system, see Referencing for beginners; for advanced help, see Footnotes.

Overview

A footnote used multiple times may be defined with a name:

<ref name="foo">content</ref>

To invoke a named footnote:

<ref name="foo" />

Issues and resolution

A named reference has a malformed name. This is produced by a construct like <ref /> or by an invalid footnote name; either create a full reference such as <ref>content</ref> or give the tag a name like <ref name="refname" />.

Names

Names for footnotes and groups must follow these rules:

  • Names are case-sensitive
  • Names may not be purely numeric
  • Names must be unique— you cannot use the same name to define different groups or footnotes
  • Quotes are optional if the only characters used are letters A–Z, a–z, digits 0–9 and the symbols !$%&()*,-.:;<@[]^_`{|}~
  • Inclusion of any other characters including spaces requires that the name be enclosed in straight quotes (")
  • Quote-enclosed names may not include a less-than sign (<) or a quote symbol (")
  • Please consider keeping names simple and restricted to the standard English alphabet and numerals.
  • You may optionally provide names even when the name is not required.


Examples

In this example, reference 1 improperly starts with <ref />:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.<ref/>Reference 1</ref> Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.<ref>Reference 2</ref> Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.

==References==
{{reflist}}

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.Cite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad name (see the help page). Reference 1</ref> Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.[1] Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.

References

  1. ^ Reference 2

Technical

This page will help you to fix the error message:

The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad name (see the help page).

  • If you need help with a particular problem, please discuss it on the article talk page or at the Help desk.
  • If you have read this help page and find something missing or confusing, please discuss it at the main talk page.
  • Please reference this page and the page where you have the problem so we can understand your issues.
  • For basic information on the footnotes system, see Referencing for beginners; for advanced help, see Footnotes.