Help:IPA for Dutch and Afrikaans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Dutch and Afrikaans pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Dutch phonology and Afrikaans phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Dutch and Afrikaans.

Consonants
IPA Examples English
approximation
Northern Dutch
Netherlands
Southern Dutch
Belgium
Afrikaans
South Africa
b beet beet
d dak den
f f fiets fast
v ver,[1] hawe (Af.) oven
x ç χ acht[2], weg[3] loch (Scottish English) ~ hue
ɣ ʝ gaan[4] roughly like Spanish rasgo ~ ayuda
ɦ had[1] behind
j jas yard
k kat skin
l land land
m mens man
n nek[5] neck
ŋ eng long
p pen, rib[3] sport
r ras[6] rolled r; similar to water (American English)
s s sok sock
z zeep[1] jazz
t tak, had[3] stop
ʋ w v wang[7] wing; velvet (Af.)
Marginal consonants
ʔ beëindig[8]
[bəˈʔɛindəx]
the catch in uh-oh!
ɡ goal[9] goal
ʃ sjabloon, chef[10] shall
ʒ jury[1][10] vision
check, Tsjechië, tjek (Af.) chat
Jakarta jump
Stress
ˈ vóórkomen
voorkómen[11]
as in battleship
/ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
ˌ
Vowels
IPA Examples English
approximation
Northern Dutch
Netherlands
Southern Dutch
Belgium
Afrikaans
South Africa
Checked vowels[12]
ɑ ɐ bad[13] father; duck (Af.)
ɛ bed bed
ɪ ə vis fish; again (Af.)
ɔ o bot soft; roughly like go or British English saw (Af.)
ʏ œ hut roughly like hug
Free vowels[12]
ɑː aap[13] father
æː perd (Af.) jazz
beet, ezel[14][15] mate; fair (Af.)
ɛː werk (Af.) square (British English)
i diep happy
boot[14][15] roughly like goat or British English law; more (Af.)
ɔː môre (Af.) law
y fuut roughly like cute
øː neus[14][15] roughly like nurse
u hoed boot
ɛi bijt, ei; byt (Af.) may
œy œj buit roughly like house
ʌu ɔu ɵu jou, dauw out; boat (South Nl./Af.)
ə hemel again
Marginal vowels
ɐ Wikipedia cut
ʊː[15] ʊə voor poor (British English) (Af.)
ɔː ? roze[16] law; roughly like law (British English)
ɪː[15] ɪə heer serious
ʏː[15] øː deur sir; roughly like united
ɛː scène,[16] nê (Af.) square (British English)
œː øə freule[16] roughly like sir
analyse[16] beat
centrifuge[16] roughly like use
ɑ̃ː genre[16] roughly like croissant
ɛ̃ː hautain[16] uh-huh
ɔ̃ː chanson[16] roughly like own
æ slash[16] like in English

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d In some northern dialects, the voiced fricatives have almost completely merged with the voiceless ones; /ɦ/ is usually realized as [h], /v/ is usually realized as [f], /z/ is usually realized as [s].
  2. ^ The sound spelled ‹ch› is a voiceless velar fricative [x] or voiceless uvular fricative [χ] in Northern Dutch, and a voiceless palatal fricative [ç] in Southern Dutch, including all of Dutch-speaking Belgium. See also Hard and soft G in Dutch.
  3. ^ a b c Dutch devoices all obstruents at the ends of words (e.g. a final /d/ becomes [t]). This is partly reflected in the spelling: the voiced ‹z› in plural huizen ('houses') becomes huis ('house') in singular, and duiven ('doves') becomes duif ('dove'). The other cases are always written with the voiced consonant, even though a devoiced one is actually pronounced: the voiced ‹d› in plural baarden [baːrdən] ('beards') is retained in the singular spelling baard ('beard'), but pronounced as [baːrt]; and plural ribben [rɪbən] ('ribs') has singular rib, pronounced as [rɪp]. Because of assimilation, often the initial consonant of the next word is also devoiced, e.g. het vee ('the cattle') is [ɦətfeː].
  4. ^ In the North /ɣ/ is usually realized as [x] or [χ], whereas in the South the distinction between /ʝ/ and /ç/ has been preserved. See also Hard and soft G in Dutch.
  5. ^ The final ‹n› of the plural ending -en is usually not pronounced, except in the North East (Low Saxon) and the South West (East and West Flemish) where the ending becomes a syllabic [n̩] sound. In Afrikaans it is also dropped in the written language.
  6. ^ The realization of the /r/ phoneme varies considerably from dialect to dialect. In "standard" Dutch, /r/ is realized as the alveolar trill [r] or as a uvular trill [ʀ]. In some dialects, it is realized as an alveolar tap [ɾ] or even as an alveolar approximant [ɹ].
  7. ^ The realization of the /ʋ/ phoneme varies considerably from the Northern to the Southern and Belgium dialects of the Dutch language. In the north of the Netherlands, it is a labiodental approximant [ʋ]. In the south of the Netherlands and in Belgium, it is pronounced as a bilabial approximant [β̞] (as it also is in the Hasselt and Maastricht dialects), and Standard Belgian Dutch uses the voiced labiovelar approximant [w].
  8. ^ The glottal stop [ʔ] is not a separate phoneme in Dutch, but is inserted before vowel-initial syllables within words and often also at the beginning of a word.
  9. ^ /ɡ/ is not a native phoneme of Dutch or Afrikaans and only occurs in loanwords, like goal or when /k/ is voiced, like in zakdoek [zɑɡduk]. In Afrikaans it may occur as an allophone of /χ/.
  10. ^ a b /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ are not native phonemes of Dutch, and usually occur in borrowed words, like show and bagage ('baggage'). Even then, they are usually realized as [sʲ] and [zʲ], respectively. However, /s/ + /j/ sequences in Dutch are often realized as [sʲ], like in the word huisje ('little house'). In dialects that merge /s/ and /z/, [zʲ] is often realized as [sʲ].[citation needed]
  11. ^ When the penultimate syllable is open, stress may fall on any of the last three syllables. When the penultimate syllable is closed, stress falls on either of the last two syllables. While stress is phonemic, minimal pairs are rare. For example vóórkomen /ˈvoːrkoːmə(n)/ "to occur" and voorkómen /voːrˈkoːmə(n)/ "to prevent". In composite words, secondary stress is often present. Marking the stress in written Dutch is optional, never obligatory, but sometimes recommended.
  12. ^ a b The "checked" vowels /ɑ/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɔ/, and /ʏ/ occur only in closed syllables, while their "free" counterparts //, //, /i/, //, and /y/ can occur in open syllables (as can the other vowels). These two sets also go by the names dull/sharp, dim/clear, lax/tense, closed/open, or short/long. One of each pair is pronounced slightly longer by many speakers, so the terms long and short traditionally used to explain the use of doubled consonants and vowels in the orthographic system.
  13. ^ a b c The near-open central vowel [ɐ] is an allophone of unstressed // and /ɑ/.
  14. ^ a b c The long close-mid vowels //, /øː/ and // are realised as slightly closing diphthongs [], [øʏ] and [] in many northern dialects.
  15. ^ a b c d e f In the North the vowels //, /øː/ and // are pronounced [ɪː], [ʏː] and [ʊː] when they precede /r/.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Found in loanwords. /æ/ is pronounced the same as /ɛ/ by many speakers.