Help:IPA for German

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See German phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of German. For information on how to convert spelling to pronunciation, see German orthography § Grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b bei ball
ç China, ich, durch hue
d dann done
f für, von fuss
ɡ gut guest
h hat hut
j Jahr yard
k kann, Tag[1] cold
l Leben last
m Mann must
n Name not
ŋ lang long
p Person, ab[1] puck
pf Pfeffer cupfull
ʁ reden[2] French: rouge
ʀ red (Northumbrian Burr, trilled [ʁ])
r far (Scottish English)
s lassen, Haus, groß fast
ʃ schon, Stadt shall
t Tag, und[1] tall
ts Zeit, Platz cats
Matsch match
v was vanish
x nach loch (no lock–loch merger)
z Sie, diese hose
ʔ beamtet[3]
([bəˈʔamtət])
the glottal stops in uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
Dschungel jungle
ʒ Genie pleasure
Stress
ˈ Bahnhofstraße
([ˈbaːnhoːfˌʃtʁaːsə])
as in battleship /ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
ˌ
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a alles ant (England)
aber, sah car (Australian English)
eben, gehen face (Scottish English)
ɛ Ende, hätte bet
ɛː spät, wählen[4] there
viel, Berlin feel
ɪ ist, bitte sit
oder, hohe law (RP and Australian)
ɔ Osten, kommen lot (RP and Australian)
øː Öl roughly like herd
œ öffnen roughly like hurt
Hut pool
ʊ und took
über roughly like shoe
ʏ müssen roughly like shoe, but shorter
Diphthongs
ein tie
auf how
ɔʏ Euro, Häuser roughly like boy
Reduced vowels
ɐ immer[2] roughly like fun
ə Name comma
Semivowels
ɐ̯ Uhr[2] roughly like ear
Studie yard
aktuell would
Non-native vowels[5]
e Element (short [eː])
i Italien city (short [iː])
o originell (short [oː])
ø Ökonom (short [øː])
u Universität (short [uː])
y Psychologie (short [yː])

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The voiced stops /b d ɡ/ are devoiced to [p t k] at the end of a syllable.
  2. ^ a b c Pronunciation of /r/ in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only [r], this pronunciation is nowadays found mainly in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria, while in other regions the uvular pronunciation prevails, with the allophones [ʁ] and [ʀ]. In many regions except for Switzerland, the /r/ in the syllable coda is vocalized to [ɐ̯] after long vowels or after all vowels, and /ər/ is pronounced as [ɐ]
  3. ^ Initial vowels are usually preceded by [ʔ], except in Swiss Standard German.
  4. ^ In Northern Germany, /ɛː/ often merges with /eː/ to [].
  5. ^ [e, i, o, ø, u, y], the short versions of the long vowels [eː, iː, oː, øː, uː, yː], are used in unstressed syllables before the accented syllable and occur only in loanwords. In native words, the accent is generally on the first syllable, and there are no syllables before the accent besides prepositional prefixes. Some scholars use the symbol [ɑː] for long [aː] and add [ɑ] to the list of non-native vowels, but here [aː, a] are used instead.

Bibliography[edit]