Diphthongs are iu[ju], ou[ou], oi[oi], eu[eu], ei[ei], au[ɔu], ai[ɛi], ao, ae.
These are pronounced like sequences of vowels, but without a [w] or [j] in the middle. iu is pronounced somewhat like yu, so kiu ≈ "cue".
In rapid speech, au as in Mauna and ai as in Waikīkī tend to be pronounced like ou and ei.
^The y sound [j] is not written, but appears between a front vowel (i, e) and a non-front vowel (a, o, u)
^ ab[k] and [t], spelled k, are variants of a single consonant. [k] is almost universal at the beginnings of words, while [t] is most common before the vowel i. [t] is also more common in the western dialects, as on Kauaʻi, while [k] predominates on the Big Island.
^In some dialects the letter l tends to be pronounced [n], especially in words with an n in them. On the western islands it tends to be pronounced as a tap, [ɾ].
^ ab[w] and [v], spelled w, are variants of a single consonant. [w] is the norm after back vowels u, o, while [v] is the norm after front vowels i, e. Initially and after the central vowel a, as in Hawaiʻi, they are found in free variation. [w] also occurs, though it is usually not written, between a back vowel (u, o) and a non-back vowel (i, e, a).
^Stress falls on the penultimate vowel, with diphthongs and long vowels counting double. (That is, a final long vowel or diphthong will be stressed.) Longer words may have a second stressed vowel, whose position is not predictable.
^ abShort a is pronounced [ɐ] when stressed and [ə] when not.
^ abShort e is [ɛ] when stressed and generally when next to l, n, or another syllable with a [ɛ]; otherwise it is [e].