Help:IPA for Hebrew
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Modern/Israeli Hebrew language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Since Modern Hebrew has both non-Oriental and Oriental pronunciation, certain letters may be transcribed differently depending on the background of the speaker. See Hebrew phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Hebrew.
- Note: An image of the chart is also available.
|dʒ||ג׳ (Gimel with geresh)||ǧ or j||joy|
|f||פ ף (Fei)||f or p̄||fool|
|ħ||ח (Chet)||ḥ or ch||no English equivalent; like hen but with the tongue against the pharynx|
|m||מ ם (Mem)||m||man|
|n||נ ן (Nun)||n||no|
|q||ק (Qoph)||q or k||no English equivalent; like cup but with the tongue further back|
|ʁ||ר (Resh)||r||Somewhat like run; French rouge|
|ʃ||שׁ (Shin)||š or sh||she|
|ts||צ ץ (Tsadi)||ts (or tz)||cats|
|tʃ||צ׳ ץ׳ (Tsadi with geresh)||č or ch||chair|
וו (double Vav)
|v or ḇ/w||voice|
|w||וו (double Vav)
כ ך (Chaph)
|ḥ/ḵ or ch/kh||Similar to Scottish loch|
|ʒ||ז׳ (Zayin with geresh)||ž||beige|
|ʾ or '||uh-(ʔ)oh|
|ʕ||ע (Ayin)||ʿ or '||no English equivalent|
|ð||ד׳ (Dalet with geresh)||th||this|
|θ||ת׳ (Tav with geresh)||th||thing|
|a||ָ (Kamatz), (Patach)||a||father|
|e||(Zeire), (Segol), (Shva)||e||bed|
|o||ֹ (Holam alone), וֹ (with any mater lectionis), ָ (Kamatz katan)||o||story|
|u||וּ (Vav with shuruk), (Kubutz)||u||boot|
|ei||י (Segol-Yud), (Zeire)||ei||day|
|ai||י (Patach-Yud), ָי (Kamatz-Yud)||ai||why|
|oi||וֹי (Vav with holam male-Yud)||oi||boy|
|ui||וּי (Vav with shuruq-Yud)||ui||we|
|ao (rare)||או (Alef-Vav)||ao||cow|
|ju (rare)||יוּ (Yud-Vav with shuruk)||yu||cute|
|ij (rare)||יְ(Hiriq-Yud with Shva Nach)
i.e. "נִיְלֵן" [nijˈlen]
|ˈ||Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), e.g. אֹכֶל ('food') /ˈʔoχel/, אוֹכֵל ('eating' [participle]) /ʔoˈχel/|
|ˌ||Secondary stress, e.g. הֲאֻמְנָם? ('oh, really?') /ˌhaʔumˈnam/|
|ː||Long vowels (in Tiberian Hebrew) can be transcribed using the IPA gemination sign ː, e.g. the word for "hand" would be יָד /jaːd/ in absolute state and יַד־ /jad/ in construct state. Indicating normative consonant gemination is done with a double consonant, e.g. גַּנָּב ('a thief') /ɡanˈnav/ not /ɡaˈnːav/|
- /dʒ, ts, tʃ/ are officially written with a tie-bar in the IPA /d͡ʒ, t͡s, t͡ʃ/, respectively. The tie-bar is omitted for simplification.
- In Modern Israeli Hebrew, /ħ, ʕ, q/ have merged with /χ, ʔ, k/, respectively, while /ħ, ʕ/ are still distinguished by Oriental Hebrew speakers.
- /ʁ/ is uvular for most speakers, though some speakers, mostly Orientals, retain an alveolar pronunciation: [r]~[ɾ].
- In Modern Israeli Hebrew, /w/ appears in a few words, mostly loanwords. Example: וואו (wow) /waw/. Sometimes, in words which originally have /w/, it is approximated to [v].
- Vowel length and quality in Tiberian Hebrew is a matter of debate; this is just one possible example