^The fricative [z] tends to be used between vowels, and the affricate [dz] in pausa, though some speakers use [z] everywhere. Before /i/, this is palatalized to [dʑ]. This is usually represented phonemically as /z/. Some dialects maintain a distinction (see yotsugana).
^The Japanese r varies between a postalveolar flap [ɽ] and an alveolar lateral flap [ɺ].
^The Japanese w is not equivalent to a typical IPA [w] since it is pronounced with lip compression rather than rounding. The labial spreading diacritic is an extended IPA character.
^ abThere is no simple symbol in the IPA for Japanese u, which is neither rounded [u] nor unrounded [ɯ], but compressed[ɯ͡β̞]. The labial spreading diacritic is an extended IPA character.
^The position of this downstep, which does not occur in all words, varies between dialects, and frequently is not indicated. The downstep is a drop in pitch; the word rises in pitch before the ꜜ. When ꜜ occurs after the final syllable of a word, any attached grammatical particles will have low tone.