Help:IPA for Navajo

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Navajo pronunciations in Wikipedia articles based on the pronunciation guide at "Native Languages".

Consonants
IPA Orthography English approximation
ʔ the catch in uh-oh
b b bill[1]
ch child
ʼ ch' somewhat like child[2]
d d day[3]
dɬ dl somewhat like ladle
dz dz Edsel
g g gate[4]
ɰ gh no English equivalent
h h he[5]
hw (blowing out a candle)
j jar
k hard "k" in king
kʼ k' somewhat like k[2]
kw' queen
l l lake
ɬ ł somewhat like lake
m m man
n n nice
s s sad
ʃ sh shell
t hard "t" in tie
tʼ t' somewhat like t[2]
no English equivalent
ʼ tł' no English equivalent[2]
ts ts cats
tsʼ ts' somewhat like cats[2]
w w was
j y yellow
z z zipper
ʒ zh garage, pleasure
Oral vowels
IPA Orthography English approximation
a˩ a somewhat like bra (low tone)
a˥ á somewhat like bra (high tone)
aː˩ aa long "a" in bra (low tone)
aː˥ áá long "a" in bra (high tone)
e˩ e met (low tone)
e˥ é met (high tone)
eː˩ ee long "e" in met (low tone)
eː˥ éé long "e" in met (high tone)
i˩ i[6] see (low tone)
i˥ í see (high tone)
iː˩ ii long "ee" in see (low tone)
iː˥ íí long "ee" in seet (high tone)
o˩ o somewhat like go[7] (low tone)
o˥ ó somewhat like go (high tone)
oː˩ oo long "o" (low tone)
oː˥ óó long "o" (high tone)
Nasal vowels
IPA Orthography English approximation
ãː˩ ą nasal "a" for bra (low tone)
ã˥ ą́ nasal "a" for bra (high tone)
ã˩ ąą long nasal "a" for bra (low tone)
ãː˥ ą́ą́ long nasal "a" for bra (high tone)
˩ ę nasal "e" for met (low tone)
˥ ę́ nasal "e" for met (high tone)
ː˩ ęę long nasal "e" for met (low tone)
ː˥ ę́ę́ long nasal "e" for met (high tone)
ĩ˩ į nasal "ee" for see (low tone)
ĩ˥ į́ nasal "ee" for see (high tone)
ĩː˩ įį long nasal "ee" for see (low tone)
ĩː˥ į́į́ long nasal "ee" for see (high tone)
õ˩ ǫ nasal "oa" for coat (low tone)
õ˥ ǫ́ nasal "oa" for coat (high tone)
õː˩ ǫǫ long nasal "oa" for coat (low tone)
õː˥ ǫ́ǫ́ long nasal "oa" for coat (high tone)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The "Native Languages" website said it can also be realized as p in spilll
  2. ^ a b c d e glottalized (pop of air)
  3. ^ The "Native Languages" website said it can also be realized as t in stay
  4. ^ The "Native Languages" website said it can also be realized as k in skate
  5. ^ The "Native Languages" website said it can also be realized as the raspy x that is somewhat like the "h" in he
  6. ^ "Native Languages" says this vowel can also be realized as the "i" in sit (ɪ)
  7. ^ The Navajo /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of saw.

References[edit]