Help:IPA for Persian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Persian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Persian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Persian.

Consonants[1]
IPA Letter Examples English approximation
b ب برادر beet[2]
d د د‫وست‬ den
ج جوان jazz
f ف فشار fast
ɡ گ گروه gate[3]
ɣ[4] غ
[5] ق
باغ No English equivalent; like gate but pronounced low in the throat
ɢ قلم No English equivalent; like gate but pronounced very far back
h ه
ح
هفت hat
j ی یا yard
k ک کشور cat[6]
l ل لب land
m م مادر man[7]
n ن نان neck
p ‫پ‬ ‫پدر‬ pen[6]
ɾ ر ایران bitter in American English[8]
s س
ص
ث
سایه sock
ʃ ‫ش‬ ‫شاه‬ shah
t ت
ط
تا tall[6]
چ چوب chip[6]
v و ویژه oven[9][10]
x خ خانه loch (Scottish)
z ز
ذ
ض
ظ
آزاد jazz[11]
ʒ ژ ژاله vision[12]
ʔ ع
ء
معنا As in water, better, Let's go! in (Cockney) - department, not now! in RP - See T-glottalization
Marginal consonants
ŋ نگ رنگ sing[13]
Stress
ˈ [14] ایران
[iˈɾɒːn]
again
/əˈɡeɪn/
Vowels
IPA Letter Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
æ َ   ا[15] نه bat
ɒː ا تا As in the interjection aw but slightly shorter in length - similar to caught (American English) or not (English English)
e[16] ِ   ا[15] که between bate and bet[17]
ی کی beat
o ا   ُ   و[15] تو boat (but shorter)[18]
و تو boot
Diphthongs
ei ی کی bay, they
ou[19] و نو flow; in early New Persian as well as in modern eastern dialects pronounced as in flower or loud

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Persian consonants can be geminated, especially in words from Arabic. This is represented in IPA by doubling the consonant: [sejjed].
  2. ^ Also an allophone of /p/ before voiced consonants.
  3. ^ Also an allophone of /k/ before voiced consonants.
  4. ^ Also an allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.
  5. ^ غ and ق denoted the original Arabic phonemes in Classical Persian, the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] and the voiceless uvular stop [q] (pronounced in Persian as voiced uvular stop [ɢ]), respectively. In modern Tehrani Persian (both colloquial and standard dialects), the phonemes of غ and ق are allophones; when /ɣ/ (spelled either غ or ق) occurs at the beginning and the end of a word, post-consonantal position, and syllable-final position, it is realized as a voiced uvular plosive [ɢ], when /ɢ/ (also spelled either غ or ق) occurs intervocalically, it is realized as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ]; the allophone is probably influenced by Turkic languages like Azeri and Turkmen. The sounds remain distinct in Persian dialects of southern Iran and Eastern Persian dialects (Dari and Tajik).
  6. ^ a b c d The unvoiced stops /p, t, tʃ, k/ are aspirated much like their English counterparts: they become aspirated when they begin a syllable, though aspiration is not contrastive.
  7. ^ Also an allophone of /n/ before bilabial consonants.
  8. ^ A trilled allophone [r] occurs word-initially (Spanish/Italian/Russian R); trill [r] as a separate phoneme occurs word-medially especially in loanwords of Arabic origin as a result of gemination of [ɾ].
  9. ^ While و is pronounced [v] in Iranian Persian, it is pronounced as [w] in Dari.
  10. ^ [v] is also an allophone of [f] before voiced consonants.
  11. ^ Also an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  12. ^ Also an allophone of /ʃ/ before voiced consonants.
  13. ^ Velar nasal [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before [g], [k], [ɣ], [ɢ], and [x] in native vocabulary.
  14. ^ Stress falls on the last stem syllable of most words. For the various exception and other clarifications, see Persian phonology#Stress
  15. ^ a b c In the modern Persian script, the "short" vowels /æ/, /e/, /o/ are usually not written as is done in the Arabic alphabet; only the long vowels /ɒː/, /iː/, /uː/ are represented in the text. This, of course, creates certain ambiguities.
  16. ^ [e] is also an allophone of /æ/ in word-final position in contemporary Iranian Persian.
  17. ^ The Persian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of bate (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bet; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  18. ^ The Persian /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of boat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  19. ^ /ou/ becomes [o] in colloquial Tehrani dialect but is preserved in other Western dialects and standard Eastern Persian.