Help:IPA for Punjabi

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The charts below show the way (both in Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi scripts) in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Consonants
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi English equivalent
b ب abash
p˥ بھ Tonal p
[1] د ado
˥ [1] دھ Tonal t̪
ɖ [1] ڈ guard
ʈ˥ [1] ڈھ Tonal ʈ
ج hedge
˥ جھ Tonal tʃ
f ਫ਼ ف food
ɡ گ agate
k˥ گھ Tonal k
ɦ ہ ahead
j ي yak
k ک scan
kʰ کھ can
l ل leaf
m م much
n ن not
ɳ - burner
ŋ - bank
p پ span
pʰ پھ pan
(often pronounced [f] in Punjabi)
q ਕ਼ ق a k in the throat
(often [k] in Punjabi)
ɾ ر trilled r
ɽ ڑ US: larder
ɽʱ ੜ੍ਹ ڑھ as [ɽ] plus h
s س sue
ʃ ਸ਼ ش shoe
[1] ت stable
ʰ [1] تھ table
ʈ [1] ٹ art
ʈʰ [1] ٹھ art-historian
چ catch
ʰ چھ choose
ʋ[2] و varies between w and v
x ਖ਼ خ Bach
(Shahmukhi; often [kʰ] in Gurmukhi)
ɣ ਗ਼ غ like a French r
(Shahmukhi; often [ɡ] in Punjabi). Close to uvular flap.
z ਜ਼ ز zen
Vowels
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi English equivalent
ɑː ਆ, ਪਾ آ, ـا bra
ਏ, ਪੇ ے between yell and Yale
ɛː ਐ, ਪੈ yell
ə ਅ, ਪ ـَ nut
[3] ਈ, ਪੀ ی feet
ɪ [3] ਇ, ਪਿ ـِ dill
ਓ, ਪੋ و old
ɔː ਔ, ਪੌ law
[3] ਊ, ਪੂ loot
ʊ [3] ਉ, ਪੁ ـُ look
 ̃ ں nasal vowel
([ãː], [õː], etc.)


Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h To an English ear, [t̪ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ d̪ʱ ɖ ɖʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Punjabi speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪ʰ d̪] are how a Punjabi speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Punjabi [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈʰ ɖ] are how a Punjabi speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
  2. ^ [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Punjabi. Some words, such as vart ('ਵਰਤ', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('ਪਕਵਾਨ', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
  3. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.