Help:IPA for Sanskrit

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Sanskrit pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Sanskrit has many complex phonological processes, called sandhi, that alter sounds due to the presence of neighboring sounds at morpheme or word boundaries. See Shiksha for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Sanskrit.

IPA Nagari IAST English equivalent
b b bat
bh abhor
c c choose
ch approach-here
d other
d̪ʱ dh adhere
ɖ dog
ɖʱ ḍh guardhouse
ɡ g gate
ɡʱ gh gherkin
h head
ɦ h ahead
j y yak
ɟ j jack
ɟʱ jh hedgehog
k k can
kh khan
l leaf
m m much [1]
n not [1]
ɳ burner [1]
ɲ ñ canyon [1]
ŋ bank [1]
p p pan
ph phone
r r rat
s sue
ʂ roughly like worship
ɕ ś roughly like sheep
t thank
t̪ʰ th thank
ʈ table
ʈʰ ṭh art-historian
ʋ v vine
Vowels [1][2]
IPA Nagari IAST English equivalent
ə अ, प a tomorrow
ɑː आ, पा ā bra
ए, पे e Somewhat like wait
i इ, पि i happy
ई, पी ī feet
ऌ, पॢ Syllabic ‹l›: bottle
l̩ː ॡ, पॣ Long syllabic ‹l›
ओ, पो o old
ऋ, पृ Syllabic ‹r›: better
r̩ː ॠ, पॄ Long syllabic ‹r›: bird
u उ, पु u look
ऊ, पू ū loot
əi ऐ, पै ai bail
əu औ, पौ au awesome

Other symbols
IPA Nagari IAST English equivalent
 ̃ nasal vowel ([ãː], [õː], etc.) [1]
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Vowels may occur nasalized as an allophone of the nasal consonants in certain positions. See anusvara, chandrabindu.
  2. ^ Sanskrit distinguishes between long and short vowels. Each monophthong has a long and short phoneme. The diphthongs, historically /ai, aːi, au, aːu/, also have a difference in quality: /e, əi, o, əu/. Vowels may rarely occur extra-long.