Help:IPA for Scottish Gaelic

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Scottish Gaelic pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Scottish Gaelic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Scottish Gaelic, and Scottish Gaelic orthography for the exact correspondence between sounds and letters in Scottish Gaelic.

Consonants
Broad[1] Slender[2]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
f[3] fad, fead, pholl, pheann
ɣ dhà, deireadh, ghaol, dragh ʝ dh’iarr, dh'innis, gheall, ghin
h[3] thonn, thig, shùil, sheòl
j eala, beò, theàrn, iolaire, piuthar, shiùbhlainn, gràidh
k gaol, beagan, caileag, amharc gille, fairrge, thig, chunnaic
[4] còta kʲʰ[4] cìr
l̪ˠ làmh, balla, geal l mo leaba, cliathaich, baile, fuil
ʎ leaba, slige, gille
m[3] mac, mic, lampa, ìm
n̪ˠ nàire, snàmh, clann ɲ nighean, sneachda, cinneadh, ròin
n mo nàire, anail, bean
ŋ[5] long ŋʲ[6] aingeal
p[3] ball, nàbuidh, abair, corp
[3][4] peann, poll
rud, riochd, oirre, orra
ɾ rud, mo riochd, crann, fear ɾʲ cridhe, fir
solas, speal, sgialachd ʃ seòl, stiùir, slighe, snìomh
dall, fada, ad, falt dìleas, maide, thèid, fuilt
t̪ʰ[4] tana tʲʰ[4] tìr
v[3] bhean, sàibh, mhàthair, deimhin, làmh
x chòta, balach ç chì, balaich
Monophthongs
Short Long
IPA Examples IPA Examples
a mac, glaine làmh, àite, gearr
e teth, fead, cheil glè, chèile, beud
ɛ fear, each ɛː cnàimh, sèimh
i mise, fios ìseal, pìobaire, cinn
o tobar, bodhar bò, còig
ɔ cnoc, sgoil, deoch ɔː bròn, mòine, cl, corr
u ugh, bun, sgioltachadh, fliuch cùl, sùil, diombach, tiurr, cunntas
ɯ duine, uisge ɯː craobh, aois
ɤ dragh, ailm, creiseag, coire ɤː fadhlach
ə fada, baile
Diphthongs
IPA Examples
ai claidheamh, chaill, cainnt
au amharc, abhainn, ball, gann
ɛu seall, theann, dream
ia Niall, pian, feur, beul, fìon
fiacail, iasg, ceud, deug, sìos
ɔu toll, tonn, com
ua uamhasach, suainteadh, uaine
fuar, uair, buaidh
ɯi chraoibh, ghaoith, tuill, tuinn
ɤi maighdean, saidheamh, greim, coibhneil, oighre, coilltean, broinn
Other symbols used in transcription of Scottish Gaelic pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable) for example uinneag [ˈɯɲak]

Varying IPA conventions[edit]

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. Most systems vary from pure IPA, particularly the systems used in Celtic Studies. The following table lists some of the variations commonly encountered. If an IPA symbol is not in the table below, this indicates that the source uses the same symbol as above.

Borgstrøm (1937)[7]
(Barra)
Borgstrøm (1940)[8]
(Outer Hebrides)
Oftedal (1956)[9]
(Lewis)
Ó Murchú (1989)[10]
(East Perthshire)
Cox (2002)[11]
(Lewis)
Ó Maolalaigh (2008)[12]
(over-regional)
Black (2006)[13]
(over-regional)
Klevenhaus (2009)[14]
Bauer (2011)[15]
(both over-regional)
ç ç ç′ ç x′ ç ç ç ç
ʝ j j′ ǰ ɣ′ ʝ ʝ j j
k g̊, k g̬, k g ɡ g ɡ̊ g[16], k[17] g
g̊′, k′ g̬′, k′ ǵ ɡ′ g̭' gʲ, kʲ
k k k k k k
kʲʰ k′ʽ k′ʽ k′ k′
l̪ˠ L L L ɬ L ɫ̪ L L
ʎ L′ L′ L′ (N.A.) L′ ʎ
l l′ l′ l l l l l l
n̪ˠ N N N (N.A.) N n̴̪ N N
ɲ N′ N′ N′ (N.A.) N′ ɲ
p b̥, p b̬, p b b b b b, p b
p p p p p p
R R, Ṛ R (N.A.) R R R
ɾ r r r r r ɾ r r
ɾʲ r′ r′, ð′ ð (N.A.) ð
s s s s s s s s
ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ š ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ
d̥, t d̬, t d d d d, t d
d̥′ž, d̥′, t′ d̬′ž, d̬′, t′ d′ ǰ d′ dʲ, tʲ
t̪ʰ t t t t t
tʲʰ tʽ′ʃ, tʽ′ tʽ′ʃ, tʽ′ t′ č t′
ɯ ʎ ʎ ɯ ɯ ɯ ɯ ʎ ɯ
ɤ ø ø ə ɤ ɤ ɤ ə ɤ
ɛ ɛ, æ ɛ, æ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ
a a a a ɑ a a a a

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Scottish Gaelic makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ›, are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, and in all positions in Scottish English. In Scottish Gaelic orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹a›, ‹o›, ‹u›.
  2. ^ "Slender" (palatalized) consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹y› sound in yes. In Scottish Gaelic orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹e›, ‹i›.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Neither broad nor slender, slender positions instead having an on- or off-glide /j/.
  4. ^ a b c d e In initial position, the aspirated stops /kʰ, kʲʰ, pʰ, t̪ʰ, tʲʰ/ are postaspirated [kʰ, kʲʰ, pʰ, t̪ʰ, tʲʰ]. In medial or final position after a stressed vowel, they are preaspirated [ʰk, ʰkʲ, ʰp, ʰt̪, ʰtʲ].
  5. ^ Allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /kʰ/
  6. ^ Allophone of /n/ before /kʲ/ and /kʲʰ/
  7. ^ Borgstrøm, Carl Hjalmar (1937). "The Dialect of Barra in the Outer Hebrides". Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 8: 71–242. 
  8. ^ Borgstrøm, Carl Hjalmar (1940). The Dialects of the Outer Hebrides. A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, vol. 1 (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap suppl. vol. 1). Oslo: Aschehoug. 
  9. ^ Oftedal, Magne (1956). The Gaelic of Leurbost. A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, vol. 3 (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap suppl. vol. 4). Oslo: Aschehoug. 
  10. ^ Ó Murchú, Máirtín (1989). East Perthshire Gaelic. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-93-6. 
  11. ^ Cox, Richard A. V. (2002). The Gaelic Place-names of Carloway, Isle of Lewis. School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 1-85500-192-6. 
  12. ^ Ó Maolalaigh, Roibeard (2008). Scottish Gaelic in Twelve Weeks. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-643-4. 
  13. ^ Black, Ronald (2006). Cothrom Ionnsachaidh. Edinburgh. ISBN 0906981336. 
  14. ^ Klevenhaus, Michael (2009). Lehrbuch der schottish-gälischen Sprache. Hamburg: Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-520-2. 
  15. ^ Bauer, Michael (2011). Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Scottish Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz. ISBN 978-1907165009. 
  16. ^ Word-initially
  17. ^ Medially or final