Help:IPA for Swedish and Norwegian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish and Norwegian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Swedish phonology and Norwegian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages. Examples in the table are both Swedish and Norwegian unless otherwise noted.

Consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
SWE NOR
b bil bee
ɕ ç kind/kinn sheep
d dag dad
ɖ SWE: nord[1]
NOR: sardin[1]
order
f fot foot
ɡ god good
h hatt hat
ɧ ʂ SWE: sjö[2]
NOR: sjø
Swedish: shoe (varies regionally)
Norwegian: shoe
j jojo yoyo
k kafé café
l lake lack
ɭ Karl[1] twirl
m man man
n natt night
ɳ barn[1] turner
ŋ ting thing
p pappa papa
r år[3] A tapped or trilled "r".
s sabel sabre
ʂ torsdag[1] marshal (in some dialects)
t tisdag tea
ʈ parti[1] cartel
v vaktel vat
Vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
SWE NOR
ɑː mat bra
a ɑ fast RP stack
hel Scottish save
ɛː SWE: häl RP there
ɛ SWE: häll
NOR: helle
sell
æː SWE: ära[4]
NOR: ære
Australian ham
æ SWE: färsk[4]
NOR: fersk[4]
trap
i leaf
ɪ sill hill
mål Swedish: Scottish stove
Norwegian: RP thought
ɔ SWE: moll
NOR: åtte
RP moll, with round lips
øː SWE: dö
NOR: dø
No English equivalent; German long ö
œ SWE: nött
NOR: nøtt
No English equivalent; German short ö
œː SWE: öra[4] No English equivalent; similar to "burn" in RP
ʉː ful[5] fuel, Australian food, with tight lips
ɵ ʉ full Southern British butcher
bot[5] boot
ʊ SWE: bott[5]
NOR: ond
put, with tight lips
syl[5] No English equivalent; French long u
ʏ SWE: syll
NOR: nytt[5]
No English equivalent; German short ü
unstressed
ə SWE: be
NOR: påle
about
Stress and tone
IPA Examples Explanation
SWE NOR
ˈa anden
[ˈanːdɛn]
Rana
[ˈrɑːnɑ]
Tone 1 / acute accent:
• Single stress with single falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânːdɛn]
• Low tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̀ːnɑ]
• Falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̂ːnɑ]
ˈa.ˈa anden
[ˈanːˈdɛn]
rana
[ˈrɑːˈnɑ]
Tone 2 / grave accent:
• Double stress with double falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânːˈdɛ̂n]
• Falling-rising tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̂ːˈnɑ̌]
• Rising-falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̌ːˈnɑ̂]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish and many Southern and Western Norwegian dialects, these are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
  2. ^ Swedish /ɧ/ is a regionally variable sound, sometimes [xʷ], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ]
  3. ^ /r/ varies considerably in different dialects, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
  4. ^ a b c d Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed in Swedish. /ɛː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æ]; /øː/, and /œ/ are lowered to [œ̞], though the diacritic is not included in the chart above for simplicity.
  5. ^ a b c d e Vowels spelt u, o are compressed vowels. Those spelt ö/ø, y, å, on the other hand, are protruded vowels.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Mangold, Max (1990). Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (3rd ed.). Dudenverlag. ISBN 3-411-20916-X.