Help:IPA for Swedish and Norwegian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish and Norwegian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Swedish phonology and Norwegian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages. Examples in the table are Swedish unless otherwise noted.

Consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
Swed. Norw.
b abort ('abortion') about
ɕ ç Kina ('China') Swedish: sheep; Norwegian: hue
d dag ('day') do
ɖ[1] Swedish: nord ('north'); Norwegian: sardin ('sardine') order
f fot ('foot') fold
ɡ god ('good') ago
h hatt ('hat') hoot
ɧ[2] ʂ Swedish: sjö, Norwegian: sjø ('lake')
Swedish: Scottish English loch; Norwegian: shoe
j jojo ('yo-yo') you
k kafé ('café') coo
l lake (Norwegian and Swedish: 'brine', 'burbot') love
ɭ[1] Karl (male first name) twirl
m man ('mane') mood
n natt ('night') noon
ɳ[1] barn ('child') turner
ŋ ting ('thing') long
p pappa ('father') pool
r[3] år ('year') A tapped or trilled R.
s sabel ('sabre') soon
ʂ[1] torsdag ('Thursday') marshal (in some dialects)
t torsdag ('Thursday') too
ʈ[1] parti ('political party') cartel
v vaktel ('quail') vote
Vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
Swed. Norw.
ɑː mat [ˈmɑːt] "food" bra
Swedish: fan [ˈfaːn] "damn" German long a
a ɑ fast [ˈfast]/[ˈfɑst] "steady, unmoving" RP stack
hel [ˈheːl] "whole" Scottish save
ɛː häl [ˈhɛːl] "heel" there
ɛ häll/helle [ˈhɛl] "flat rock" sell
æː[4] ära [æːra]/ære [æːre] "honour" Australian ham
æ[4] färsk/fersk [ˈfæʂːk] "fresh" trap
sil [ˈsiːl] "sieve" leaf
ɪ sill/sild [ˈsɪl]/[ˈsɪl(d)] "herring" hill
mål [ˈmoːl] "goal" Scottish/Canadian stove
ɔ moll [ˈmɔl] "minor" (music) moll, with round lips
øː dö/dø [ˈdøː] "die" No English equivalent; German long ö
œ nött [ˈnœt] "worn" /nøtt "nut" No English equivalent; German short ö
œː[4] öra [œːra] "ear" No English equivalent; French sœur
ʉː[5] ful [ˈfʉːl] "ugly, cunning, sly" fuel, Australian food, with tight lips[6]
ɵ ʉ full [ˈfɵl]/[ˈfʉl] "full" British butcher
[5] bot [ˈbuːt] "penance" boot
ʊ[5] bott [ˈbʊt] "lived" put, with tight lips
[5] syl [ˈsyːl] "awl" No English equivalent; French long u
ʏ[5] syll [ˈsʏl] "sleeper" (railroad) in Swedish;
fylle "fill" in Norwegian
No English equivalent; German short ü
unstressed
ə begå [bəˈgoː] "commit" about
Stress and tone
IPA Examples from a rich regional variety
Norwegian, Swedish
ˈa [ˈandɛn]
"the duck"
Tone 1 / acute accent:
• Single stress with single falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈândɛn]
• Low tone [ˈà] in Oslo and falling tone [ˈâ] in western Norway
ˈa.ˈa [ˈanˈdɛn]
"the spirit"
Tone 2 / grave accent:
• Double stress with double falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânˈdɛ̂n]
• Falling-rising tone [ˈâ] in Oslo and rising-falling tone in western Norway

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish and many Southern and Western Norwegian dialects these are [ʀd], [ʀl], [ʀn], [ʀs], [ʀt].
  2. ^ Swedish /ɧ/ is a regionally variable sound, sometimes [xʷ], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ]
  3. ^ /r/ is regionally variable, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
  4. ^ a b c Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed in Swedish. /ɛː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æ]; /øː/, and /œ/ are lowered to [œ̞], though the diacritic is not included in the chart above for simplicity.
  5. ^ a b c d e Vowels spelt u, o are compressed vowels. Those spelt ö/ø, y, å, on the other hand, are protruded vowels.
  6. ^ [ʉː] is a central vowel in Oslo, but a front vowel in Stockholm.

Bibliography[edit]