Help:IPA for Vietnamese

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Vietnamese language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. There are two major standards, one of Hanoi and one of Saigon. Each makes distinctions that the other does not; represented here are the central dialects that make the distinctions of both. Following the examples are common alternate transcriptions of these sounds in the IPA for comparison.

See Vietnamese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Vietnamese.

  IPA   Examples English approximation
ʔ anh (pronounced before a vowel) button (glottal stop)
ɓ ba [ʔb] bee
c chè (Saigon final [t] after e/i/y [1]) cheese (unaspirated)
ɗ đi [ʔd] day
f ph fight
h hàng high
j y; mai (may follow all vowels but e/i/y [1]) yellow
k cô, kem sky
l là low
m mai my
n nam (Saigon final [ŋ] after a/o/u [2]) no
ɲ nhà (Saigon final [n] after after e/i/y [1]) roughly like onion
ŋ ngam (before a/o/u [2]); nghe (before e/i/y [1]) singer
p đáp sport
s xa so
ʂ sao (Hanoi [s]) show
t tây (Saigon final [k] after o/u [2]) stop
thầy top
ʈʂ tra [ʈ] (Hanoi c) choose (unaspirated)
v về (Saigon [j]) van
w u; oanh (Hanoi initial [ʔw]) (may follow all vowels but a/o/u [2]) we
x khô (Saigon []) loch (Scottish English)
ɣ ga (before a/o/u [2]); ghế (before e/i/y [1]) roughly like go
z da; già (Saigon [j]) zero
ʐ ra (Hanoi [z], Saigon could be [ɹ]) pleasure
IPA Examples English approximation
a ăn; anh [ɐ] cut
ba [ɐː][3] between cat and father
e v day
ɛ xe set
ə ân; bênh [ɜ] person
əː bơ [ɤː] sir (British English)
i khi; quy see
ɨ tư [ɯ] roughly like good
o cô roughly like law (British English)
ɔ có; xoong law (American English)
u ru too
IPA Examples English approximation
vn, bia beer (British English)
ɨə xương, chưa [ɯə] No English equivalent
uống, mua sure (British English)
ʲ (see /j/ above)
ʷ (see /w/ above)
IPA Examples
a ə a (Hanoi [˧], Saigon [˧])
â ə̂ à (Hanoi [˨˩], Saigon [˨˩])
ǎ ə̌ á (Hanoi [˧˥], Saigon [˧˥])
a᷉ ə᷉[4] (Hanoi [˧˩], Saigon [˧˩˧])
ǎˀ ə̌ˀ ã (Hanoi [˧ˀ˥], Saigon [˧˩˧])
âˀ ə̂ˀ (Hanoi [˧ˀ˩ʔ], Saigon [˨˧])
ə́k[5] ấc (Hanoi [˦˥], Saigon [˦˥])
ə̀k[5] ậc (Hanoi [˩], Saigon [˩])


  1. ^ a b c d e The front vowels ([i], [e], [ɛ], [j]) which are based on the letters e, i, and y.
  2. ^ a b c d e The non-front vowels, which are based on the letters a, o, and u.
  3. ^ /aː/ may be pronounced [æ].
  4. ^ This is a dipping tone. It looks similar to ã ə̃ ([  ̃  ] (nasalized mark). The dipping tone differs only in being angular in shape, but is not widely supported by IPA fonts.
  5. ^ a b Before a final /p, t, c, k/, the six tones of Vietnamese are reduced to two.