Help:IPA for Nguni

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The charts below the way in which the IPA is used to transcribe the Nguni languages such as Xhosa, Zulu, and Swati.

A superscript X marks a sound or spelling found specifically in Xhosa, and Z specifically in Zulu. Sounds marked* are only found in loan words.

Consonants Vowels Tones
Non-click
IPA Orthography
bh
ɓ b
d
d̠ʲʱ dyx
dzʱ dz*
dʒʱ j
f f
ɡʱ ghz, gx
ɠ gz
h h
ɦ hh
j y
yh
kh
k
kxʼ klz, krx
l l
lhx
ɬ hl
ɮʱ dl
m m
mh
n n
nh
Non-click
IPA Orthography
n̠ʲ ny
n̠ʲʱ nyh
ŋ ng'
ŋʱ ngh*
ph
p
r r*
r*
s s
ʃ sh
th
t̠ʲ tyx
t̠ʲʰ tyhx
t
tsʼ tsx
tsʰ tshx or thsx
tʃʼ tsh
tʃʰ tshx or thshx
v
w w
wh
x rhx
ɣʱ grx
z
ʒʱ zh*
Click
IPA Orthography
ǀ c
ǁ x
ǃ q
ǀʰ ch
ǁʰ xh
ǃʰ qh
ǀʱ gc
ǁʱ gx
ǃʱ gq
ǀ̃ nc
ǁ̃ nx
ǃ̃ nq
ǀʱ̃ ngc
ǁʱ̃ ngx
ǃʱ̃ ngq
ǀ̃ˀ nkcX
ǁ̃ˀ nkxX
ǃ̃ˀ nkqX
Vowel
IPA Orthography
a a
ɛ e
e e
i i
ɔ o
o o
u u
ː
Tone mark Tone Bar
Tones
á ˦
à ˨
âː ˥˩
ǎ̤ ˨˦
à̤ ˨
a̤᷈ ː ˨˧˨