Help:Multilingual support

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Articles on the English Wikipedia may contain words or texts written in different languages and scripts. To be able to correctly view and edit these articles requires that you have the appropriate fonts installed and to have correctly configured your operating system and browser. This guide will help you to do so.



Articles on Wikipedia are encoded using Unicode (specifically UTF-8)[1], an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. Because UTF-8 is backwards compatible with ASCII, and most modern browsers have at least basic Unicode support, most users will experience little difficulty reading and editing Wikipedia.

For older browsers, MediaWiki, the Wikipedia software, serves the wikitext in a safe mode upon editing. Characters that cannot be represented in ASCII are temporarily converted to hexadecimal character references, looking like ሴ. Existing hexadecimal character references get an additional leading zero so they are not converted to actual characters when the page is saved, and look like ሴ. Likewise, to create a hexadecimal character reference in safe mode, not the character itself, a leading zero should be added. One can check whether safe mode is used by editing this section. If M looks like M rather than M, safe mode is used.


Most computers with Microsoft Windows, Apple's OS X and many Linux variants will already have fonts with support for Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and the International Phonetic Alphabet installed. Many mobile devices, such as the iPhone and iPad also include such fonts. Several historic and accented characters (used in the transliteration of foreign scripts) may be missing, though.

Microsoft fonts[edit]

Font Included with Scripts Description
Arial Unicode MS [1] Western, Japanese, Hangul, Johab, Big5, GB 2312, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Baltic, Central European, Celtic, Cyrillic, Thai and Vietnamese Supports a wide number of scripts, but is of a slightly lower quality than Arial because it lacks kerning and is not smoothed. Contains a minor bug that causes double-wide diacritics to be placed on the wrong characters.
Lucida Sans Unicode [2] Western, Hebrew, Greek, Turkish, Baltic, Central European, Cyrillic Has a much smaller character repertoire than that of Arial Unicode MS, but is more legible.
Tahoma [3] Western, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Baltic, Central European, Celtic, Cyrillic, Thai and Vietnamese Has a much smaller character repertoire than that of Arial Unicode MS, but is more legible, especially (according to Meta) in terms of Arabic and Persian characters.
Microsoft Sans Serif [4]
Not to be confused with MS Sans Serif
Western, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Celtic, Baltic, Central European, Cyrillic, Thai, Vietnamese Has better support for historical and accented Latin characters.

Other available unicode fonts[edit]

Font Typeface Sample License Format Encoding
Aboriginal sans serif, serif Freeware OpenType Unicode 5.2
Charis SIL serif Open Source OpenType Unicode 5.1
Code2002 Archive copy at the Wayback Machine Freeware (must not be altered) TrueType Unicode, plane 2
Code2001 0.919 Archive copy at the Wayback Machine Freeware (must not be altered) TrueType Unicode, plane 1
Code2000 1.171 sans-serif Shareware (unrestricted) TrueType Unicode, plane 0
DejaVu Sans, Sans Mono and Serif Open Source OpenType Unicode 5.1
Doulos SIL serif Open Source OpenType Unicode 5.1
Everson Mono 3.2b4 monospace Shareware TrueType Unicode
TITUS Cyberbit Basic serif Non-commercial TrueType, but requires Windows to install Unicode 4.0
Unicode Fonts for Ancient Scripts (Greek, Egyptian, cuneiform...) Aegean, Aegyptus, Akkadian, Alexander, Analecta... 󳩄, Ͱ No license, but may be used for any purpose TrueType
Japanese TrueType


Internet Explorer
supports Latin (however not all extended sets), Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic and Hebrew. Support for East Asian and some Indic scripts is available if support for this has been installed for Windows. As Internet Explorer will only use the default font for other scripts, those are usually not supported (unless the default font does).
tries to render any character using all the fonts available on the system so multilingual support is generally good. The default rendering engine does not support complex script rendering, however. Some Linux distributions ship with a Pango-based rendering engine which does, this may currently cause some display glitches with justified text, though.
tries to render any character using all the fonts available on the system so multilingual support is also good.[2] Opera uses the operating system to perform contextual glyph selection, ligature forming, character stacking, combining character support and other character shaping tasks.[3]
Does not support the languages of India, but otherwise renders many characters. Renders Sinhala, Gurmukhi, and Tibetan scripts in the examples below, but not Devanagari (used for Hindi), Bengali, or any of the other official languages of India.



Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics[edit]

Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are an abugida used to write a number of First Nations languages in Canada, including Cree, Ojibwe, Naskapi, Inuktitut, Blackfoot, Sayisi, and Carrier.

Correct rendering Your computer
Nehiyawewin.svg ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ


Correct rendering Your computer
Cherokee.svg ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ


The Coptic alphabet is used to write Coptic, the language used in Egypt before Arabic. It is currently used solely as a liturgical language.

Correct rendering Your computer
Coptic Me-min.svgCoptic Ne-min.svgCoptic Tau-min.svgCoptic Ro-min.svgCoptic Me-min.svgCoptic Ne-min.svgCoptic Kappa-min.svgCoptic Eta-min.svgCoptic Me-min.svgCoptic Ei-min.svg ⲙⲛⲧⲣⲙⲛⲕⲏⲙⲉ
  • Quivira: Use this for the best Coptic letter/ word spacing and sizing. It provides full Unicode support for all Coptic letters.
  • GNU FreeSerif
  • Alphabetum is a commercial unicode font, but it is the only font that provides Bohairic Coptic letters rather than Sahidic.


The cuneiform script was primarily used to write Sumerian and Akkadian (including Assyrian and Babylonian).


Correct rendering Your computer
Deseret Alphabet.svg 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 𐐈𐑊𐑁𐐩𐐺𐐯𐐻

East Asian[edit]

Script Correct rendering Your computer
Traditional Chinese Chinesetexttest.png


Simplified Chinese SimChinesetexttest.png


Japanese Japanese text test.svg

かつ、尊厳と権利と について平等である。

Korean Korean text test.svg

모든 인간은 태어날 때부터
자유로우며 그 존엄과 권리에
있어 동등하다. 인간은 천부적으로
이성과 양심을 부여받았으며 서로
형제애의 정신으로 행동하여야 한다.


The Ethiopic syllabary is used in central east Africa for Amharic, Bilen, Oromo, Tigré, Tigrinya, and other languages. It evolved from the script for classical Ge'ez, which is now strictly a liturgical language.

Correct rendering Your computer
Ethiopiya-text.svg ኢትዮጵያ
Font Sample License Format Encoding
Abyssinica SIL OFL OpenType, AAT and Graphite Unicode 4.1 + SIL PUA
Code2000 1.16 Shareware TrueType Unicode
Ethiopia Jiret GPL2 Unicode 3.0
Everson Mono Shareware TrueType Unicode
GF Zemen Unicode GPL2 TrueType Unicode
TITUS Cyberbit Non-commercial Unicode 4.0


The following table compares how a correctly enabled computer would render the following scripts with how your computer renders them:

Script Correct rendering Your computer Help page
Bengali Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Bengali.png ক + িকি Wikipedia:Bangla script display help
Devanāgarī Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Devanagari.png क + िकि Template:Devfonthelp
Gujarati Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Gujarati.png ક + િકિ
Gurmukhī Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Gurmukhi.png ਕ + ਿਕਿ
Kannada Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Kannada.png ಕ + ಿಕಿ
Malayalam Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Malayalam.png ക + െകെ
Oriya Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Oriya.png କ + େକେ
Sinhala Complex Text Rendering - Sinhala.svg ඵ + ේඵේ
Tibetan Examples of complex text rendering Tibetan.png ར + ྐ + ྱརྐྱ
Tamil Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Tamil.png க + ேகே
Telugu Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Telugu.png య + ీయీ

Old Persian cuneiform[edit]

The Old Persian cuneiform script was used to write the Old Persian language. The script is encoded in block "Old Persian", code points 103A0–103DF ( chart). It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
kabaujiiya 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambujiya (Cambyses II)

Syriac/Aramaic script[edit]

Syriac and Aramaic scripts like most Semitic scripts flow from right-to-left which can cause letter to appear in the wrong order. The tag {{rtl-lang}} can be used to fix this issue.

Script Correct rendering Your computer
Madnḥāyā Maltho Madenhaya.svg ܒܪܹܝܼܫܝܼܬ݀ ܐܝܼܬ݂ܲܘܗ݇ܝ ܗ݇ܘܵܐ ܡܹܠܬܵ݀ܐ.
Serṭā Maltho Serto.svg ܒ݁ܪܺܝܫܺܝܬܼ ܐܻܝܬܼܰܘܗ̱ܝ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ ܡܶܠܬܼܳܐ.
Estrangelo Maltho Strangilo.svg ܒܪܝܫܝܬ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܗܘܐ ܡܠܬܐ.

Most operating system provide support for Syriac script natively[citation needed], however only the Madnḥāyā variety (ܡܕܢܚܝܐ‎) is rendered correctly. In order to render the Serṭā (ܣܪܛܐ‎) and Estrangelo (ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܐ‎) varieties, additional fonts are needed. This is supported by the fonts linked above.

Tifinagh script[edit]

See Help:Multilingual_support_(Tifinagh)

South East Asian[edit]


The Balinese script is used to write the Balinese language. The script is encoded in block "Balinese", code points 1B00–1B7F ( chart). It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Balinese text, example.png ᬩᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭞ᬚᬸᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭙᭘᭒᭟ Bali, 1 Juli 1982.


Correct rendering Your computer
Complex Text Rendering - Burmese.svg ဃ + ြ → ဃြ
Available fonts
Font License Unicode OpenType AAT Graphite
Padauk OFL Yes Yes No Yes
Parabaik OFL, GPL Yes Yes No No
Parabaik Sans OFL, GPL Yes Yes No No
Myanmar3 from BBC website
LGPL Yes Yes No No
Myanmar2 LGPL Yes Yes No No
WinUni Innwa Freeware Yes Yes No No


The Javanese script is used to write the Javanese language. It has been supported by Unicode 5.2 above. The Tuladha Jejeg font for Javanese is available as a webfont in the English Wikipedia, so no fonts need to be installed. This script, however, can only be displayed in a browser that supports the Graphite technology. As of July 2013 the only such browser is Firefox. Since Firefox 22 this is enabled by default (from version 11 until 21 you had to enable the setting gfx.font_rendering.graphite.enabled in about:config, but this is no longer needed). Download

Correct rendering Sugeng rawuh tuladha.png
Your computer, Tuladha Jejeg ꧋ꦱꦸꦒꦼꦁꦫꦮꦸꦃꦮꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦠꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦶꦁꦮꦶꦏꦶꦥꦺꦝꦶꦪꦃꦗꦮꦶ꧉
Transliteration Sugeng Rawuh Wonten ing Wikipédia Jawi


The Lontara script is used to write the Buginese, Makassarese, and Mandar language. The script is encoded in block "Buginese", code points 1A00–1A1F ( chart). It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Lontara script.png ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ Basa Ugi

Old Tagalog/Baybayin[edit]

Baybayin (also known as the Tagalog script in Unicode and Alibata) is a form of pre-Spanish Philippine writing system in which modern minority scripts in the Philippines has descended.

Correct rendering Your computer
Tagalog in Baybayin script postkudlit.png

ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜊᜏᜆ᜔ ᜆᜂ ᜀᜌ᜔ ᜁᜐᜒᜈᜒᜎᜅ᜔ ᜈ ᜋᜌ᜔ ᜃᜍᜉᜆᜈ᜔,
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜉᜈ᜔ᜆᜌ᜔ ᜐ ᜇᜒᜄ᜔ᜈᜒᜇᜇ᜔,
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜃᜍᜉᜆᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜆᜂ ᜀᜌ᜔ ᜊᜒᜈᜒᜌᜌᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜉᜄᜒᜁᜐᜒᜉ᜔,
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜃᜍᜓᜈᜓᜅᜈ᜔ ᜈ ᜃᜁᜎᜅᜅ᜔ ᜋᜄ᜔ᜃᜁᜐ ᜐ ᜃᜉᜆᜒᜍᜈ᜔

Download and installation:

  • Paul Morrow's Baybayin Fonts. Offers the most extensive list of Baybayin fonts for Windows and Macintosh operating systems.
  • PNKL is a free unicode font support which defines own assignment of Baybayin alphabet to a normal keyboard. Available for Windows and Linux users.


The Sundanese script is used to write the Sundanese language. The script is encoded in block "Sundanese", code points 1B80–1BBF ( chart). It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Ladrang-sunda.png ᮜᮓᮢᮀ

ᮃᮚ ᮠᮤᮏᮤ ᮛᮥᮕ ᮞᮒᮧ ᮜᮩᮒᮤᮊ᮪,
ᮆᮀᮊᮀ-ᮆᮀᮊᮀ, ᮆᮀᮊᮀ-ᮆᮀᮊᮀ,
ᮞᮧᮊ᮪ ᮜᮥᮜᮥᮔ᮪ᮎᮒᮔ᮪ ᮓᮤ ᮎᮄ,
ᮃᮛᮤ ᮘᮍᮥᮔ᮪ ᮃᮛᮦᮊ᮪ ᮞᮛᮥᮕ ᮏᮩᮀ ᮜᮔ᮪ᮎᮂ.


Aya hiji rupa sato leutik,
Éngkang-éngkang, éngkang-éngkang,
Sok luluncatan di cai,
Ari bangun arék sarupa jeung lancah.

Special cases[edit]


In edit box In database and output
Sx Ŝ
Sxx Sx
Sxxx Ŝx
Sxxxx Sxx
Sxxxxx Ŝxx

Mediawiki installations configured for Esperanto use UTF-8 for storage and display. However when editing the text is converted to a form that is designed to be easier to edit with a standard keyboard.

The characters for which this applies are: Ĉ, Ĝ, Ĥ, Ĵ, Ŝ, Ŭ, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ. you may enter these directly in the edit box if you have the facilities to do so. However when you edit the page again you will see them encoded as Sx. This form is referred to as "x-sistemo" or "x-kodo". In order to preserve round trip capability when one or more x's follow these characters or their non-accented forms (C, G, H, J, S, U, c, g, h, j, s, u), the number of x's in the edit box is double the number in the actual stored article text.

For example, the interlanguage link [[en:Luxury car]] to en:Luxury car has to be entered in the edit box as [[en:Luxxury car]] on eo:. This has caused problems with interwiki update bots in the past.


The Romanian alphabet contains an S-comma (Ș ș) and T-comma (Ț ț). These characters were added to Unicode 3.0 at the request of the Romanian standardization institute. As font support for these characters has been poor in the past, many computer users use the similar characters S-cedilla (Ş ş) and T-cedilla (Ţ ţ) instead. However, on Wikipedia it is recommended to use the correct characters with comma below.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Until June 2005, when MediaWiki 1.5 came into use on the Wikimedia projects, articles on the English Wikipedia were encoded using ISO/IEC 8859-1 (although the additional characters from the Windows-1252 character set were used in practice.) All characters from the ISO/IEC 10646 Universal Character Set could be accessed through numerical entities, as specified by the HTML 4.01 specification. Since, nearly all pages have been converted to use Unicode directly.
  2. ^
  3. ^

External links[edit]