Help:Visual file markup

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This page explains how to display images and videos in Wikipedia pages.

The best markup for adding an image to a page in most situations is

[[File:Example.jpg|thumb|alt=Alternative text|Caption text]]


The best markup for adding a video to a page in most situations is

[[File:Example.ogg|frame|alt=Alternative text|Caption text]]


File markup begins with the filename, preceded by the File: prefix with both elements enclosed in double square brackets – for example [[File:Example.png]]. Codes may then be added. Each code must be separated with a pipe (|). Some codes specify a display mode, which is like a preset – it will determine the way the image is displayed and which additional properties can be specified to further customise how the image is displayed. Codes may be in any order – with the exception of the caption, which should be last. Only the filename is required. This must be placed first.

Many existing files use the Image: prefix instead of File:. The rest of the markup is exactly the same. Additionally, Image: may be used with any type of file, not just images.

If an article already has an infobox at the top right, then the usual place for the article's first picture is within the infobox. Many infoboxes require a different syntax than the one described here. For guidance on the other syntax, and how to choose which is correct, see Help:Infobox picture.

File types[edit]

Before a file can be used, it must be uploaded to either Wikipedia or the Wikimedia Commons sister project. Uploading to Commons is recommended as files can be used by other sister projects. Files being used under fair use provisions must be stored on Wikipedia. The markup is the same regardless of where the file is uploaded.

The following visual file types may be uploaded:

Image formats
  • jpg/jpeg – recommended for photographic images.
  • svg – a vector format recommended for drawings and line-art illustration.
  • png – recommended for non-vector iconic images.
  • gif
Video formats
Mixed content formats

Display modes[edit]

There are four display modes:

  • Basic
  • Thumbnail
  • Framed
  • Frameless

Basic mode[edit]

See examples

A file in basic mode does not specify a display mode. Files are displayed at full size by default. Images are displayed inline unless a horizontal alignment is specified.

Thumbnail mode[edit]

See examples

A file in thumbnail mode uses the codes thumb or thumbnail. This will display a thumbnail with a caption. The default size is 220 pixels wide unless the full size file is smaller. Registered users can specify their own default size if they wish.

In normal circumstances, images are scaled down automatically by Wikipedia's server. This does not happen for animated GIFs. Instead the original animated GIF is downloaded, and whether the image is scaled to fit the allotted space depends on the capabilities of the browser. Videos are not scaled down either, which wastes bandwidth. Use framed mode or upload a lower resolution file.

Framed mode[edit]

See examples

A file in framed mode uses the codes frame or framed. This will display the file at full size with a caption. Because files are not scaled down, framed mode is not appropriate for large images, but is a good choice for video – provided the video is not too large.

Frameless mode[edit]

See examples

A file in frameless mode uses the code frameless. This will display a thumbnail without a caption. The default size is 220 pixels wide unless the full size file is smaller. Unlike thumbnail mode, images are displayed inline unless a horizontal alignment is specified.

Adjusting properties[edit]

Caption[edit]

Text entered at the end of the markup is used as a caption. It does not require a code. Links and normal text formatting options can be used in captions too.

[[File:Example.png|thumb|alt=Example alt text|Example caption]]

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Horizontal alignment[edit]

See examples.

Position the file to the right.

[[File:Example.png|right|alt=Example alt text]]


Position the file to the left.

[[File:Example.png|left|alt=Example alt text]]


Position the file in the centre. Text will not flow around the file.

[[File:Example.png|center|alt=Example alt text]]


Position the file to the left. Text will not flow around the file.

[[File:Example.png|none|alt=Example alt text]]

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Size[edit]

Files will keep their original aspect ratio.

In normal circumstances, images are scaled down automatically by Wikipedia's server. This does not happen for animated GIFs. Instead the original animated GIF is downloaded, and whether the image is scaled to fit the allotted space depends on the capabilities of the browser. Videos are not scaled down either, which wastes bandwidth. Consider uploading a lower resolution file.

Resize tall files[edit]

See examples

Reduce the width for tall, thin files. This is generally better than specifying a width as it respects user preferences.

[[File:Example.png|thumb|upright|alt=Example alt text|Example caption]]


Adjust a thumbnail's size to Factor times the default thumbnail size, rounding the result to the nearest multiple of 10. For instance, "upright=1.5" makes the image larger, which is useful for maps or schematics that need to be larger to be readable. As a guide "upright=1" is the same width as a standard thumbnail, and "upright=0.75" is the same as using "upright" alone.

[[File:Example.png|thumb|upright=Factor|alt=Example alt text|Example caption]]

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Specify a size[edit]

See examples

Scale the file to make it the specified number of pixels in width (e.g. 100px).

[[File:Example.png|Widthpx|alt=Example alt text]]


Scale the file to make it the specified number of pixels in height (e.g. x150px).

[[File:Example.png|xHeightpx|alt=Example alt text]]


Scale the file to be no wider and no higher than the specified number of pixels (e.g. 100x150px).

[[File:Example.png|WidthxHeightpx|alt=Example alt text]]

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Add alt text[edit]

Specify the alt text for the image. This is intended for visually impaired readers. See WP:ALT for how this typically should differ from the caption.

[[File:Example.png|alt=Example alt text]]

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Links[edit]

Ordinarily, a file will include a hyperlink to its description page, a page with information about the file itself. The options below allow the link to point to a different page or to be disabled. For images, the link is the image itself. Videos include an information icon below the video.

Unless the file is public domain attribution must be provided in some other fashion. See Wikipedia:Images linking to articles for more information.

Modify file link[edit]

Example alt text

The image acts as a hypertext link to the specified page. Do not enclose the page name in square brackets. If Page is a URL, the image acts as an external link; otherwise it links to the named Wikipedia page. Image maps offer more possibilities.

[[File:Example.png|link=Name of page|alt=Example alt text]]

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Disable file link[edit]

Example alt text

No hyperlink is created. Clicking on an image or mixed content file will have no action. The link to "About this file" is removed when playing a video .

[[File:Example.png|link=|alt=Example alt text]]

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Add a border[edit]

White flag containing solid red circle
White flag containing solid red circle

Add a one-pixel border around the file. This can be useful when it is important to distinguish a file from the background. Consider using thumb or frame instead.

[[File:Flag of Japan.svg|border|alt=Example alt text]]

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Inline display[edit]

An image with no horizontal alignment specified will be displayed inline with the text.

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Vertical alignment[edit]

Images must be placed inline. File:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg is used as an example.

Align the bottom of the image with the baseline of the text.

[[Image:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg|baseline|7px|link=|alt=]]


(This is the default.) Align the vertical middle of the image with the baseline of the text plus half the x-height of the text, so that the image is vertically centered around a lower case "x" in the text.

[[Image:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg|middle|7px|link=|alt=]]


Align the bottom of the image to the same level that the bottom of a subscript would be, such as the bottom of the "2" in "X2".

[[Image:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg|sub|7px|link=|alt=]]


Align the bottom of the image to the same level that the bottom of a superscript would be, such as the bottom of the "2" in "X2".

[[Image:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg|super|7px|link=|alt=]]


Align the top of the image to the top of the text. This is often a bit higher than the top of a capital letter, because of ascenders in letters like lower-case "h".

[[Image:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg|text-top|7px|link=|alt=]]


Align the bottom of the image to the bottom of the text. This is somewhat lower than the baseline, because of descenders in letters like lower-case "y".

[[Image:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg|text-bottom|7px|link=|alt=]]


Align the top of the image to the top of the line containing the text. Normally this is slightly higher than the top of the text, to make space between lines of text.

[[Image:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg|top|7px|link=|alt=]]


Align the bottom of the image to the bottom of the line containing the text. Normally this is slightly lower than the bottom of the text.

[[Image:Flag of Hungary vertical.svg|bottom|7px|link=|alt=]]

Change the image displayed[edit]

Initial still image[edit]

Thumbtime of 27 seconds specified to show the title.

Use the frame from the video at the given time as the initial still image. Without a thumbtime parameter, a frame from the midpoint of the video is used. Time takes the form of hours, minutes and seconds separated by colons. For example:

  • thumbtime=21 – Time syntax using seconds only
  • thumbtime=0:23 – Time syntax using minutes and seconds
  • thumbtime=0:0:33 – Time syntax using hours, minutes and seconds

[[File:Big Buck Bunny small.ogv|thumbtime=Time|alt=Example alt text]]

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Select a page[edit]

This is page 13

Images can be excerpted from DjVu or Pdf files, with an optional page parameter.

[[File:Abroad - 1882.djvu|page=number|alt=Example alt text]]

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Provide a different thumbnail[edit]

Example alt text
Example caption

You can link to one image from a thumbnail's small double-rectangle icon , but display another image using "|thumb=Displayed image name". This is intended for the rare cases when the Wikipedia software that reduces images to thumbnails does a poor job, and you want to provide your own thumbnail. In the example, the double-rectangle links to File:Anime stub 2.svg but the image displayed is File:Anime stub.png.

[[File:Anime stub 2.svg|thumb=Anime stub.png|alt=Example alt text|Example caption]]

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Specialised uses[edit]

Instead of using the file markup above, markup for specialised uses has been created which may be used instead.

Panoramas[edit]

Very large pictures should not be put directly into articles, as they cause problems in some browser environments. Images wider than 550px or so are often better treated as a panorama, which can be created with the {{Wide image}} template. For example:

{{wide image|Helsinki z00.jpg|1800px|alt=Panorama of city with mixture of five- to ten-story buildings|[[Helsinki]] has many buildings.}}
Panorama of city with mixture of five- to ten-story buildings
Helsinki has many buildings.

Co-aligning[edit]

It is common to have two pictures that logically should be grouped together. The {{multiple image}} template is one way to do this. For example:

Yellow cartouche
Caution
Red cartouche
Ejection
Two cards used by football referees
  {{multiple image
   | width     = 100
   | footer    = Two cards used by football referees
   | image1    = Yellow card.svg
   | alt1      = Yellow cartouche
   | caption1  = Caution
   | image2    = Red card.svg
   | alt2      = Red cartouche
   | caption2  = Ejection
  }}


The same template can also align pictures vertically:

Yellow cartouche
Caution
Red cartouche
Ejection
Two cards used by football referees
  {{multiple image
   | direction = vertical
   | width     = 100
   | footer    = Two cards used by football referees
   | image1    = Yellow card.svg
   | alt1      = Yellow cartouche
   | caption1  = Caution
   | image2    = Red card.svg
   | alt2      = Red cartouche
   | caption2  = Ejection
  }}


Image maps[edit]

1896 Democratic campaign poster with nominees William J. Bryan of Nebraska for President and Arthur Sewall of Maine for Vice President William J. Bryan Arthur Sewall
About this image

You can link different parts of an image to different locations using an image map. For example, in the image at right, clicking a circle roughly corresponding to the left portrait takes the reader to William Jennings Bryan, clicking the right portrait goes to Arthur Sewall, and clicking anywhere else goes to http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/democrats.html. This image is generated by the following markup:

<imagemap>
Image:Bryan-Sewall.jpg|300px|right|alt=1896 Democratic campaign poster with nominees William J. Bryan of Nebraska for President and Arthur Sewall of Maine for Vice President
circle 950 850 700 [[William Jennings Bryan|William J. Bryan]]
circle 2950 850 700 [[Arthur Sewall]]
default [http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/democrats.html 1896 Democrats]
</imagemap>

This imagemap markup specifies that the title text (tooltips) for the three regions are "William J. Bryan", "Arthur Sewall", and "1896 Democrats", respectively. The alt text for an imagemap region is always the same as its title text; the alt text for the overall image is given in the first line of the imagemap's markup. The underlying image's native dimensions are 3916 × 1980, and the coordinates are given in these dimensions rather than in the 300px resizing. As described in the image map documentation, regions can be specified as circles, rectangles, and arbitrary polygons, and the blue "i" icon can be moved or suppressed. Also, the image can be specified as a "thumb" or "frame", which means it has alt text and a caption in the usual way, with a double-rectangle icon instead of the blue "i" icon .

Galleries[edit]

Galleries of multiple files may be produced. These are typically placed towards the end of the article.

There is no one standard way of producing a gallery. The options available are:

Link to a file without displaying it[edit]

To link to a description page without displaying the file, put a colon before the prefix.

[[:File:Example.png]]
File:Example.png

You can also link directly to the file using "Media:" instead of "File:".

[[Media:Example.png]]
Media:Example.png

In both cases piped links also work.

See also[edit]