Helsinki tram

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Helsinki tram
Variotram Helsinki 2008-11-24.jpg
MLNRV Hakaniemi 2010-05-03.JPG
Above: Variotram at Senaatintori
Below: Valmet MLNRV in Hakaniemi
Background
Locale Helsinki, Finland
Transit type Tram
Number of lines 12
Daily ridership 200,000 (weekdays)[1]
Operation
Began operation 1891
Operator(s) HKL
Number of vehicles 132
Technical
System length
Total
110 km (68.4 mi)[2]
Passenger traffic
89.5 km (55.6 mi)[2]
Track gauge 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in)
Minimum radius of curvature 15 m (49.2 ft)
Electrification 600 V DC
overhead lines[3]
System map

Helsinki tram map.png

The Helsinki tram network forms part of the Helsinki public transport system organised by Helsinki Regional Transport Authority and operated by Helsinki City Transport (Finnish: Helsingin kaupungin liikenne, Swedish: Helsingfors stads trafivkerk) in the Finnish capital city of Helsinki. The trams are the main means of transport in the city centre. 54.9 million trips were made in 2009. The Helsinki system is one of the oldest electrified tram networks in the world.

Since 1999, new low-floor trams have been gradually brought into operation, but technical difficulties have slowed this progress. In 2004, Helsinki City Transport bought old eight-axle trams from Germany for relief during this transitional phase.

Lines[edit]

Trunk Lines[edit]

There are 12 tram lines in operation. Line 9 is the latest to open on 10 August 2008, and also the latest to have its route changed, with the opening of the extension to West Harbour on 13 August 2012.

Helsinki Tram Trunk Lines as of 13 August 2013
Line number From Via To Service hours[A] Depot
1[I] Market Square Kallio Käpylä 10:00–15:00 Koskela
1A[I] Eira Market Square, Kallio 06:00–09:30
15:00–18:30
2 Kaivopuisto Market Square, Töölö Nordenskiöldinkatu (Eläintarha) 06:00–01:30 Koskela
3 Punavuori, Kallio
4 Katajanokka Mannerheimintie Munkkiniemi 06:00–01:30 Töölö
4T[C] Katajanokka ferry terminal 10:00–11:30
16:00–17:00
6[J] Hietalahti Hakaniemi Arabia 06:00–23:30 Koskela
6T West Harbour ferry terminal Hietalahti, Hakaniemi 06:00–23:30 Koskela
7A[D] Senate Square Töölö, Pasila Senate Square 06:00–23:30 Koskela / Töölö
7B[E] Pasila, Töölö
8 Jätkäsaari Sörnäinen Arabia 06:00–23:30 Koskela
9 West Harbour ferry terminal Kallio Itä-Pasila 06:00–24:00 Koskela
10 Kirurgi Mannerheimintie Pikku Huopalahti 06:00–23:30 Töölö

Additional Lines[edit]

In addition to the 12 trunk lines two special exist: the museum line operated by Helsinki City Transport in collaboration with Oy Stadin Ratikat Ab[4] and the Spårakoff pub tram, both of which run during the summer months. These lines do not appear in the route map included with this article.

Additional Tram Lines as of summer 2012
Line number From Via To Service hours[A] Depot
-[F] Market Square Kruunuhaka, Rautatientori Market Square 10:00–17:00[G]
PUB[E] Rautatientori Kallio, Töölö, Market Square Rautatientori 14:00–21:00[H]
A Approximate week day figures in 24-hour clock. Accurate times at HSL site.
B Trams on lines 2 and 3 actually run to opposite direction in a figure-of-eight circular only changing their line signs at the terminuses.
C Ferry arrival and departure times only.
D Clockwise circular.
E Counter-clockwise circular.
F Non-numbered museum line.
G Summer weekends only.
H Summers only.
I Weekdays only.
J During ferry arrival and departure times in weekends line 6 is run as line 6T, which termines at West Harbour ferry terminal instead.

Technology and infrastructure[edit]

Two Valmet Nr I trams, the one in the front on line 4 and the one behind on its way to Töölö tram depot.

The tram network is built almost exclusively on the streets of Helsinki, making it a traditional tram system rather than a light rail one. The track gauge is one metre. The network consists almost entirely of double track. In some parts the tracks are separated from other road traffic; elsewhere they share road space with cars and buses.

The trams are powered with electricity conveyed by overhead wires. Trams have their own traffic lights, distinguished from normal lights in that they are based on symbols of single colour: an upward-pointing arrow signifies "go", a horizontal line "prepare to stop" and the letter S "stop". The traffic lights are synchronised to allow tram and bus traffic to flow relatively smoothly. This system is called HeLMi (Helsinki Public Transport Signal Priority and Passenger Information). [5]

Depots[edit]

Töölö tram depot.

As of 2010, there are four tram depots/workshops in Helsinki; HKL-maintained depots in Töölö, Vallila and Koskela, and a Bombardier Transportation-maintained workshop at Pasilan konepaja.

  • The Töölö depot houses trams running on lines 4 and 10, as well as some of those on lines 7A and 7B, approximately one third of the whole rolling stock. The Helsinki tram museum is located next to the Töölö depot. Between 1948 and 1974 the Töölö depot also housed the trolleybuses used on Helsinki's sole trolleybus line.[6]
  • The Vallila depot houses repair-, paint- and rebuilding facilities, and administrative functions.[7]
  • The Koskela depot is the largest tram depot in Helsinki. It houses approximately two thirds of trams in the city, and contains training facilities.[8] The Koskela depot is linked to the main Helsinki tram network by a long section of double track that is not used by passenger-serving trams.[9]
  • The Pasilan konepaja tram workshop was established in mid-2008 by Bombardier transportation as a repair shop for the Helsinki Variotrams,[10] the maintenance of which became Bombardier's responsibility in May 2008.[11] The workshop takes up a part of the former VR Group electric locomotive workshop at Pasilan konepaja. As of August 2008, the workshop does not have a permanent link to the tram network (although tracks run just outside the depot doors); instead, portable tracks are used to run the trams to and from the workshop.[10]

Planning process is under way (as of October 2008) for excavating a new underground tram depot in the base rock below the existing Vallila depot and adjacent city blocks. The underground depot is planned to have facilities for housing 180 trams plus repair facilities and staff parking spaces.[12][13] The underground depot would partially or completely replace the Koskela depot, which is inconveniently located far from normally operated tram lines and would require major reconstruction if kept in use.[14] An alternative is rebuilding and expanding the Koskela depot, but this is projected to be more expensive than the planned underground depot.[15]

Rolling stock[edit]

Helsinki City Transport operates the tram network with a total of 132 trams in scheduled passenger service. In addition there are six trams in reserve and eight in charter use. The Valmet NRV I (formerly Nr I), Valmet MLNRV II (formerly Nr II) and Variotram series comprise the backbone of the fleet. Both Finnish- and German-made vehicles are in use. In 2006—2012, the whole Nr II+ series underwent a major modification process in which a 6.5 m (21 ft 4 in) low-floor midsection was fitted in the tram. The type designation was changed from Nr II+ to MLNRV to reflect the modifications made and the extended trams were re-introduced in traffic gradually as the modification works completed. HKL has also decided to fit eight of the older Nr I trams with a low-floor midsection, bringing the total number of MLNRV trams up to 52 by 2012, when the modifications are expected to be complete. HKL purchased ten DUEWAG series second-hand trams from the German town of Mannheim to cover for the shortage of rolling stock caused by the problems with the Variotrams.

The following table lists the current rolling stock. Corresponding articles have further details about the cars in use.

Rolling stock as of April 2012
Tram Type Car # Built Acquired Modified Seats Standees L[F] W[G] H[H] S[I] C[J] R[K]
a NRV (Valmet Nr I) d 31—70 1973—1975 1973—1975 1993—2003, 2005, 2012-2013 39 106 20.1 2.3 3.7 ×
c MLNRV II(Valmet Nr II) f71—112 1983—1987 1983—1987 1996—2006, 2008—2012 49 120 26.5 2.3 3.7 ×
d Bombardier Variotram l 201—240 1998—2003 1998—2003 55 80 24.4 2.3 3.7 ×
d Transtech Artic l 401—440 2012— 2013— 88 125 27.6 2.4 3.8 ×
e DUEWAG GT6 i 151—154 1970 2005 52 93 19.1 2.2 3.8 ×
g DUEWAG GT8N k 161—166 1962, 1964 2007—2008 1991—1992 55 120 25.7 2.2 3.8 ×
j HRO A7 g 135 1928 1928 1988 21 26 10.2 2.1 3.7 ×
i HRO A4 j 157 1930 1930 1987 21 26 10.2 2.1 3.7 ×
l Karia HM IV m 320 1955 1955 1985 29 69 13.5 2.3 3.6 ×
h Valmet RM 1 n 332, 339[L] 1955 1955 1987, 2003—2004 29 69 13.5 2.3 3.6 ×
m Karia HM V c 9—14, 175[M] 1959 1959 2004—2007 31 57 13.5 2.3 3.6 ×
f DUEWAG GT8 h 150 1967 2004 1970, 2004 64 140 25.7 2.2 3.8 ×
k HRO A9 b BS 1[N] 1917 2007 2007 28 0 11.5 2.2 ×
Totals 146 6,777[O] 14,299[P] 132 8 6

F Car length in meters
G Car width in meters
H Car height in meters with pantograph
I Scheduled service
J Charter service
K Reserve units

L Number 339 is owned by Oy Stadin Ratikat Ab.
M Number 175 is a restaurant tram and is counted as charter.
N A replica of Brändö Spårvägs Ab tram number 1 from 1917.
O 6,346 seats in scheduled service; 245 seats in charter service; 186 seats in reserve.
P 13,552 standees in scheduled service; 405 standees in charter service; 342 standees in reserve.
Reference for the tabular data: Finnish Tramway Society

Future acquisitions[edit]

The board of HKL decided on 2 December 2010 to order 40 new articulated trams from the Finnish manufacturer Transtech Oy.[16] Transtech is the direct descendant of the state-owned Valmet, which built Helsinki's Nr I and Nr II trams. Two new trams are start test runs in line service in 2013, and the production series deliveries are expected to start in 2015. The order is worth €113 million and it includes an option for a further 90 trams.

The new Transtech Artic has a double-articulated, eight-axle design. It is 27.3 m (89 ft 7 in) long and has 74 fixed seats, 14 foldable seats and space for 75 standee passengers.[16] The design has a 100% low floor and conventional, turning bogies designed to run without problems on Helsinki's challenging old-fashioned track network.[17]

To ease the construction of new tram tracks into Jätkäsaari during 2009–2015 (see below), the acquisition of bi-directional trams was considered.[18] However, HKL decided to build the Jätkäsaari extensions with conventional return loops, even though this means that some of the loops built in the intermediate phases will likely not be used in regular traffic when Jätkäsaari is completed. The next time bi-directional rolling stock might be considered is the possible conversion of the Jokeri orbital line (see below) into light rail.

History[edit]

Today, Helsinki is the only city in Finland to still have tram traffic. Two other Finnish cities—Turku (see Turku tram) and Vyborg (Finnish: Viipuri, Swedish: Viborg, Russian: Вы́борг; now part of Russia)—have had tram systems. Vyborg abandoned its trams in 1957, after the city had been ceded to the Soviet Union following the result of World War II. Turku withdrew its trams in 1972.

A Finnish postage stamp depicting a horse-drawn tram in Helsinki.

1890–1900: Horse-drawn single-track lines[edit]

The first proposals for the construction of a tram system into Helsinki were made in 1870s, but they were at the time unsuccessful.[19] Public transport in Helsinki was initiated in 1888 by Helsingin omnibussiosakeyhtiö, using horse-drawn omnibuses.[20][21] In 1889 Helsingin Omnibussiosakeyhtiö acquired the right to construct tram lines in Helsinki. The following year the company changed its name in Helsingin raitiotie- ja omnibussiosakeyhtiö (abbreviated HRO). Electric traction was considered as a power source for the new system, but due to lack of funds and the city council's negative attitude towards electric trams, the decision was made to use horse-drawn trams instead.[20][22] The new system was built to a rail gauge of one metre. Test traffic started in December 1890, but the network wasn't officially opened for traffic until June 1891. The capacity of the horse tram system soon proved insufficient, but the changeover into electrified trams was postproned while waiting for the price of electrification of the network to drop.[19][22]

The slowness of the electrification process was the source of conflict within the HRO, and during the latter half of the 1890s Julius Tallberg acquired the right to construct an orbital tram system around the city, that would have linked together the existing HRO lines and parts of the city not covered by the HRO lines. Following negotiations Tallberg and his associates transferred the construction permit of the orbital line to the HRO in return for a large number of HRO stocks.[22]

1900–1908: Electric single-track lines[edit]

O. L. Kummer built the first electric trams for Helsinki, photographed here on Läntinen Viertotie (present-day Mannerheimintie).

In 1897 HRO received the right to construct an electrified tramway into Helsinki. A call for bids was sent out the following year, and the contract was awarded to the Germany-based O.L. Kummer. By terms on the agreement Kummer had to construct and electrify the new tram system as well as construct the trams used on it, and the company would be responsible for trafficking the new system for up to three years in order to ensure good quality of construction. Electrification of the network was mostly completed in 1900,[23] with one short horse-drawn line lingering until 1901.[24] Kummer had made notable profits from operating the new electrified system, and already in 1901 HRO assumed responsibility for operating the tram network.[23] Following the electrification the number of lines grew into four, but all lines remained single-track. At the same time colours were taken into use as line identifiers.[25]

Within a few years the single-track lines proved insufficient to meet the passenger demand, but the majority of stock owners were unwilling to fund the conversion into double track, while Julius Tallberg and his associates were strongly for the conversion. In 1906 Tallberg and his supporters acquired a stock majority in the HRO, and during the same year the company applied for and received a permission to convert their track network into double track. The contract also specified certain lines that HRO had to operate, as well as certain extensions that had to be built.[26]

ASEA delivered 67 trams of this type, nicknamed "Pikkuruotsalainen" (English: Little Swede), to HRO between 1908 and 1918. HKL 32 (originally HRO 77) photographed on line 15 in 1954.

1908–1945[edit]

The contract for converting the tram network into double track was awarded to the Swedish ASEA. Conversion work begun in 1908 and was completed in 1910. From 1908 until 1919 ASEA also supplied the HRO with a total of 78 trams and 70 trailers.[26] In 1909 Brändö Villastad Ab, a company constructing a garden city in the island of Kulosaari (then a part of Helsingin maalaiskunta), and HRO reached an agreement for linking Kulosaari into the Helsinki tram network. The track onwards from the existing HRO line in Sörnäinen was built by Brändö Villastad Ab, who was also responsible for the upkeep of the track, as well as the tram ferry required to cross the Kuorekarinsalmi sea area between Sörnäinen and Kulosaari. Traffic on the new connection was operated by HRO, and service begun in 1910 using existing HRO trams.[27] In 1916 Brändö Spårvägsaktiebolag, which had been created as a separate company to take care of the Kulosaari tram tracks, ordered two new trams of its own. Due to World War I these were not delivered until 1919, and even after they had been delivered HRO remained in charge of trafficking the line. In 1919 a bridge between Kulosaari and the mainland was also completed.[28]

In 1913 the HRO begun expanding its tram network for the first time since 1901, when the tracks were expanded from Hakaniemi to Alppila.[26] During the same year the City of Helsinki acquired the stock majority of HRO, but HRO remained an independent company.[29] The following year the network was also expanded into Taka-Töölö and Hermanni. After this, World War I made it impossible to acquire electric wires and points required for construction.[26]

The first trams built in Finland for Helsinki came from Suomen autoteollisuus in 1940-1941. HKL 169 photographed on line 5 in 1957.

The construction of non-HRO owned tram lines continued when in 1914 new tram tracks owned by Aktiebolaget M.G. Stenius were opened to traffic, linking the existing HRO tracks in Töölö to Munkkiniemi and Haaga. As with the Kulosaari tramline, HRO was responsible for trafficking on these lines.[9][30] In 1926 HRO acquired Aktiebolaget M.G. Stenius and two years later Brändö Spårvägsaktiebolag also passed under HRO ownership. As a result HRO again became the sole owner and operator of trams in Helsinki.[9] During the same year line numbers and letters were taken into use as line identifiers alongside colours.[31] Lines serving the city were identified with numbers, while suburban lines were identified with letters.

The tram network reached its apex in 1930, when the network covered a larger area than ever before or after (as of 2008), and there were 14 lines in operation.[20]

1945–1975[edit]

In the end of 1944 the City of Helsinki had acquired the entirety of HRO, which now became a municipal transport authority under the name Helsingin Kaupungin Liikennelaitos (HKL).[29][32] This had little to no effect in tram operations. In 1950 secondary line identifier letters were taken into use to distinguish rush hour services from the standard routes (for example 1A, KA. The second letter was a capital letter but in a smaller size from the first).[31] In 1953 the usage of letters as the primary line identifier ended, and the following year line colours were also abandoned.[31]

Tram number 11, type HM V, on Line 2 in September 1999.

Trams remained the main public transport system until the 1950s and 1960s, when the city rapidly sprawled and private cars became increasingly common; the new suburbs came to be served mainly by buses and commuter trains. During the 1940s and 1950s plans were drawn for a large light rail network incorporating into the tram system, which would have served major suburban centers; in preparation for this the new Kulosaari bridge (built 1956) featured a reserved space for tram tracks, while the new tram depot was built in Koskela next to a planned northeast light rail line—new tracks had to be built linking the depot to the existing network. As of August 2008, this track along Kustaa Vaasan tie has never been used in normal passenger traffic.[9] During the 1950s a total of 105 Finnish-built double-bogie trams (Karia types HM IV and HM V, Valmet types RM 1 and RM 3) were delivered to the HKL.[32]

During the 1960s all plans for expanding the tram network were put on hold while resources were concentrated on the planning of the metro and additional bus connections. At the same time plans were drawn for the termination of the tram network by the year 2000. In 1969 Helsinki city council made the decision that in the future tramlines would be confined to the inner city, while the metro would serve the suburban areas; the tram system would be terminated, at earliest in the year 2000. This decision required the acquisition of new trams to replace the last two-axle trams, the oldest of which dated from the 1920s. Originally the plan was to acquire fairly new second-hand articulated Düwag GT6 trams from Copenhagen, but the deal fell through and in the end new articulated trams were acquired from Valmet (type Nr I) in 1973–1975. These trams were planned to be the last trams to be acquired for traffic in Helsinki.[9] In a break from tradition the Nr I trams were originally painted in an orange/grey colours scheme instead of the traditional green/yellow, integrating their visual appearance with the Dm 8 and Dm 9 express DMUs of the Finnish State Railways,[33] as well as the Helsinki metro, which was in testing phase at the time.[34][35]

1976-1998[edit]

NrI and NrII-class trams were originally painted in an orange and grey livery, but it proved unpopular and both classes were later repainted in the traditional yellow and green colours. NrII number 73 in Market Square on line 1, 1987.

During the early 1970s the decision to terminate the tram system was reconsidered and eventually reversed. In 1976, the tram network was expanded for the first time since 1955, when the new connection into Itä-Pasila was opened (then line 2, present line 7). Another expansion was opened in 1980, when tracks in Katajanokka were expanded eastward to a new residential area (then line 5, present line 4). In 1981 another group of articulated trams, based on the Nr I type, were ordered from Valmet. Classified as Nr II, these trams were delivered between 1983 and 1987, allowing the withdrawal of the majority of the 1950s-built trams (types HM IV and RM 1 in their entirety), as well as withdrawal of all trailers. In 1985 the tram network was extended to West Pasila[9] (line 7). In the mid-1980s the tram lines were radically reorganised: line 5 was closed down and the routes of lines 2, 3B, 3T, 4, 7A, 7B, 8 and 10 altered to a smaller or larger degree.

The next expansion of the network occurred in 1991, when the connection from Ruskeasuo to Pikku Huopalahti was opened (line 10). In the 1990s wide-ranging plans were made for expansion and improvement of the tram system. These included the Jokeri orbital light rail line connecting Itäkeskus to Leppävaara, extensions of the system to Munkkivuori, Koskela, Viikki, Malmi, Arabianranta and to the harbour areas Jätkäsaari, Munkkisaari and Kalasatama, which were to be freed from shipping activities and to become brownfield sites for residential and office development. In addition to the extensions, the plans included a partially tunneled light rail line linking Erottaja to Pasila via Töölö.

1999 onwards[edit]

Starting in 1999, HKL received deliveries a fleet of low-floor Variotram trams from ADtranz (Bombardier Transportation since 2001). The new generation trams suffered from persistent technical difficulties and frequent break-downs, the entire batch needing to be refitted by the manufacturer in Germany.[36] To cover for the missing trams, the city bought ten second-hand trams from Mannheim, Germany. To help pay for the second-hand trams, HKL was allowed to cover six of the extra trams completely in advertising, a sight rarely seen before on the streets of Helsinki.[37] The purchase of the Bombardier trams was never completed due to the reliability problems. Instead, a deal was reached that required Bombardier to keep a certain minimum number of trams in operation. Bombardier opened its own depot in Helsinki for this purpose in mid-2008.[10]

A CROTRAM TMK 2200 tram in test use on line 6.

The purchase of a new series of 40 low-floor trams was initiated in 2007, and the trams were eventually ordered from the Finnish manufacturer Transtech in December 2010. In preparation for the acquisition, in 2007–2008 one CROTRAM TMK 2200 type tram built in Croatia was used for test running in Helsinki.[38] Due to the hilly nature of Helsinki's tram network compared to that of Zagreb (for which the TMK 2200 type was designed), the TMK 2200 could be operated only on the relatively flat-terrain lines 6 and 8.[39] The tram performed technically without problems. Passenger feedback was largely negative, but mostly concerned issues — such as the seating arrangements — that would be changed if the type were mass-produced for HKL.[40][41] During the initial phase of the call for bids opened in late 2008,[42] Alstom, Bombardier Transportation, CAF, Končar (Crotram), ON's Industry, Siemens, Škoda, Transtech and Vossloh (reportedly in collaboration with Heiter Blick)[43] submitted tenders.[44] Of these, Bombardier, CAF, Škoda, Transtech and Vossloh were selected for the second phase of the call for bids. In the end, Bombardier, CAF and Transtech submitted tenders and Transtech's tender was chosen.[16]

Variotram number 212 on the 2004-built northern terminus of lines 6 & 8 in Arabianranta.

The extension of the network from Arabia into the new residential development area in Arabianranta[45] (lines 6 and 8) was eventually realised and opened in 2004. The new number 9 line opened on 10 August 2008, connecting Kolmikulma in central Helsinki to East-Pasila and replacing bus line number 17, albeit having been truncated from both ends compared to the initially planned version. This marked the opening of the first new tram line in Helsinki since the (re-)opening of line 2 in 1976.

The first phase of the extension of line 8 to Jätkäsaari was opened on 1 January 2012, and the extension of line 9 to the ferry terminal in Jätkäsaari via Kamppi on 13 August 2012 (see below). The Kalasatama connection (see below) is in planning stages as of 2012, as the construction of buildings in the former harbour has begun.

Various changes to improve the average running speeds in the system were proposed from the late 1990s onwards, and the benefits of these improvements were estimated to outweigh the costs by a large margin. E.g. a detailed plan to speed up line 8 was approved in 2011. Despite this, the improvements have been left unrealised.[9]

Line 5 Culture Tram from the inside.
Line 5 Culture Tram from the outside.

From the autumn of 2010 to December 2012, a Culture Tram was operated for limited hours on three days of the week (Wed, Thu, Fri) on the additional line no. 5, whose route ran from Ooppera to Linjat via Rautatientori. The Culture Tram had various art exhibitions and performances on board. Highlights included performances by the singers of the Finnish National Opera and concerts as a part of the Flow Festival.[46] A single eight-axle Düwag tram, originally purchased from Mannheim, Germany, and refurbished specifically for this purpose, served as the Culture Tram. HKL decided to discontinue the regular operation of the Culture Tram by the end of 2012 because the vehicle was deemed too slow in relation to other, frequent tram traffic that shares the same tracks. HKL planned to keep the Culture Tram in the fleet and make it available on charter basis for events that could use the equipment installed in it, such as the audio system.[46]

2013[edit]

Tram lines 3B and 3T were renumbered to 3 and 2 in August, and at the same time the northern endpoint was labeled as "Nordenskiöldinkatu" instead of "Eläintarha" (engl. Zoo), presumably to avoid confusion with the actual zoo located elsewhere.

Route history[edit]

During the history of tram traffic in Helsinki, the routes of various lines have been altered, sometimes radically, and line designations have been changed or swapped between different routes. For instance, the still-existing line 1 (also known as the green line 1900–1926) has run on 22 different routes/route variants since the line was first opened in 1890.[24][25][47] The following is a simplified list designed to give a basic impression of what the tram network was like during different eras. Various short-lived route changes and rush hour services are ignored to ease reading.

1890–1901: horse-drawn trams[edit]

  • TöölöKaivopuisto. Shortened, then closed down in 1900. Replaced by the Yellow Line in the new electrified tramway.
  • Sörnäinen—Lapinlahdenkatu. Shortened in 1900, closed down in 1901. Replaced by the Green and Red Lines in the new electrified tramway.[24]

1900–1909[edit]

  • Green: Eira—Sörnäinen (1900–1901), Katajanokka—Eira—Sörnäinen (1901–1907, combination of green and blue lines), Kauppatori—Sörnäinen (1907–1910).
  • Yellow: Töölö—Kaivopuisto (1900–1908).
  • Blue: Töölö/Mariankatu (present-day Presidential Palace)—Hietalahti (1900–1901). Combined into the Green Line 1901–1907. Katajanokka—Hietalahti (1907–1909).
  • Red: Ylioppilastalo/Lapinlahti—Kruununhaka (1900–1907), Lapinlahti—Kallio (1907–1909).[25]

1909–1926[edit]

Helsinki tram network in 1920-1922.

In addition to the lines owned by Helsingin Raitiotie- ja Omnibussiosakeyhtiö, one line was owned by Brändö Spårvägsaktiebolag, two lines by Aktiebolaget M.G. Stenius as well as one line owned by Julius Tallberg in Lauttasaari.

  • Green: Eira—Hermanni (1910–1931).[47]
  • Yellow: Töölö—KaivopuistoRautatientori/Hakaniemi (1908–1922), Eira—Kallio—Töölö—Kauppatori—Eira (figure-of-eight circular, 1922–2009)[48]
  • Yellow-White: Katajanokka—Hietalahti (1909–1926), Etu-TöölöKirurgi (1924–1926). Two lines operated under the same colours 1924–1926.[49]
  • Red: Lapinlahti—Hakaniemi/Alppila (1909–1925).[45]
  • White: Sörnäinen/Kauppatori—Kulosaari (1910–1951). Brändö Spårvägsaktiebolag owned the line from Sörnäinen onwards as well as the rolling stock. HRO operated the service. Between 1910 and 1919 the trams were carried across Kuorekarinsalmi sea area by a ferry.[50]
  • Blue-Yellow: Ylioppilastalo/Kauppatori—Haaga (1914–1926). Aktiebolaget M.G. Stenius owned the line from Laakso onwards. HRO operated the service using their own trams.[30][51]
  • Red-Yellow: Ylioppilastalo/Kauppatori—Munkkiniemi (1914–1926). Aktiebolaget M.G. Stenius owned the line from Laakso onwards. HRO operated the service using their own trams.[30][52]
  • Lauttalaituri—Katajaharjunniemi (1913–1917). A Julius Tallberg -owned horse tram line operated on the island of Lauttasaari, using former HRO trams.[24][30][53]

1926–1953[edit]

Helsinki tram network in 1946-1949.

In 1926 HRO acquired both Aktiebolaget M.G. Stenius and two years later Brändö Spårvägsaktiebolag, becoming the sole tram operator in Helsinki. During 1926 year numbers and/or letters were taken into use as identifiers of different lines alongside colours. Numbers were used for inner city lines, letters for suburb lines.

  • 1 (green): Eira—Hermanni/Arabia (1910–1949), Eira—Vallila—Salmisaari (1949–1953, combination of lines 1 and 8).[47]
  • 2 (green-white): Kauppatori—Hermanni (1926—1928). Not operated 1928–1939. Etu-Töölö—Hakaniemi/Harjutori (1939–1951). Not operated 1951–1976.[54]
  • 3 (yellow): Eira—Kallio—Töölö—Kauppatori—Eira (1922–2009), figure-of-eight circular.[48]
  • 4 (blue): Hietalahti—Töölö/Meilahti (1926–1951), Hietalahti-Munkkiniemi (1951–1959).[55]
  • 5 / 5A (yellow-white): Etu-Töölö—Katajanokka (1926–1955; 1929–1939 as 5A).[49]
    • 5B: Etu-Töölö—Kauppatori (1929–1939).[49]
  • 6 (red): Lapinlahti—Hakaniemi (1926–1928), Lapinlahti-Hakaniemi-Hermanni (1928–1945), Lapinlahti-Hakaniemi-Arabia (1945–1959).[45]
  • 7 (red-white): Kirurgi—Linjat (1926—1949). Not operated 1949–1951. Töölö—Sörnäinen—Rautatientori (circular, 1951–1980).[56]
  • 8 (blue-white): Ruoholahti/Salmisaari—Töölö/Vallila (1929–1949). Not operated 1949–1953 (combined into line 1).[57]
  • 9 (blue-yellow): ErottajaRuskeasuo (1939–1946).[58]
  • 10 (white): EläintarhaLänsi-Pasila (1928–1952).[59]
  • 11 (white): Kauppatori—Hermanni (1944).[60]
  • 12 (white, later red-yellow): Erottaja-Taka-Töölö (1944–1945), Erottaja-Kuusitie (1945–1949), Kirurgi-Kuusitie (1949–1957).[61]
    • 12S: Arabia—Ruskeasuo (1950–1955), rush hour and night-time service.[61]
  • B/KB (white, later green-yellow): Kauppatori—Kulosaari (1913–1951). Tram traffic to Kulosaari terminated in 1951, in part due to the poor condition of the wooden bridge connecting the island to the mainland.[27][50]
  • H (blue-yellow): Erottaja-Haaga (1926–1939), Ruskeasuo-Haaga (1939–1946), again Erottaja-Haaga (1946–1949), Diakonissalaitos-Haaga (1949–1953).[51]
  • K (green-red): Vallila/Kauppatori—Käpylä (1925–1953). Combined into line 1 1953[62]
  • M (red-yellow): Erottaja—Munkkiniemi (1926–1951).[52] Combined into line 4 1951.
  • W (green-white): Kauppatori—Arabia (1926–1931).[63]

1953–1985[edit]

Helsinki tram network in 1976 and 1977.

The usage of letters as the main line identifier ended in 1953. Line colours were abandoned in 1954.

  • 1: Eira-Kauppatori-Käpylä (1953–1954), Kauppatori—Käpylä (1954 onwards).[47]
    • 1A: Eira—Käpylä (1954–1976), rush hour service.[47]
  • 2: Kauppatori—Itä-Pasila (1976–1985).[54]
  • 3B, 3T: Eira—Kallio—Töölö—Kauppatori—Eira (1922–2009), figure-of-eight circular.[48]
  • 4: Hietalahti-Munkkiniemi (1951–1959), Kirurgi—Munkkiniemi (1959–1985).[55]
    • 4S: Kauppatori—Munkkiniemi (1951–1981), rush-hour service.[55]
    • 4A: Erottaja—Munkkiniemi (1956–1966), rush-hour and night-time service.[55]
    • 4N: Katajanokka—Munkkiniemi (1973–1985), night-time service.[55]
  • 5: Katajanokka—Töölö (1955–1985).[49]
  • 6: Lapinlahti-Arabia (1945–1959), Hietalahti—Arabia (1959 onwards).[45]
  • 7: Töölö—Sörnäinen—Rautatientori (circular, 1951–1980), Hakaniemi—Töölö—Harjutori (1980–1984).[56]
  • 8: Salmisaari—Vallila (1953–1984).[57]
    • 8K: Salmisaari—Käpylä (1953–1962), rush-hour service.[57]
  • 9: Kauppatori—Vallila (1953–1976).[58]
  • 10: Erottaja-Ruskeasuo (1955–1957), Kirurgi-Ruskeasuo (1957–1959), Linjat—Ruskeasuo (1959–1985).[59]
    • 10A: Käpylä—Ruskeasuo (1955–1958), rush-hour service; Arabia—Ruskeasuo (1959–1964), night-time service.[59]
    • 10S: Kauppatori—Ruskeasuo (1955–1977), rush-hour service.[59]
    • 10N: Erottaja—Ruskeasuo (1957–1959), Arabia—Ruskeasuo (1965–1977), night-time services.[59]
  • 12: Kirurgi-Kuusitie (1949–1957), Linjat-Kuusitie (1957–1959), Hietalahti—Kuusitie (1959–1962).[61]
    • 12S: Arabia—Ruskeasuo (1950–1955), rush hour and night-time service.[61]
  • 15: Linjat—Töölön tulli (1954–1957).[64]

1985 onwards[edit]

Helsinki tram network in 1992-1995
  • 1: Kauppatori—Käpylä (1954 onwards).[47]
    • 1A: Eira—Käpylä (1985 onwards), rush hour service.[47]
  • 2: Kauppatori—Linjat (1985–1992), Katajanokka ferry terminal—Linjat (1992–2005).[54]
  • 3B, 3T: Eira—Kallio—Töölö—Kauppatori—Eira (1922–2009), figure-of-eight circular.[48]
    • 3B: Kaivopuisto—Eira—Kallio—Eläintarha (2009 onwards), forms a figure-of-eight circular together with line 3T.[48]
    • 3T: Kaivopuisto—Kamppi—Töölö—Elaintarha (2009 onwards), forms a figure-of-eight circular together with line 3B.[48]
  • 4: Katajanokka—Munkkiniemi (1985 onwards).[55]
    • 4T: Katajanokka ferry terminal—Munkkiniemi (2004 onwards).[55]
  • 6: Hietalahti—Arabia (1959 onwards).[45]
  • 7A, 7B: Pasila—Töölö—Rautatientori/Senaatintori—Sörnäinen—Pasila (1985 onwards), circular.[56]
  • 8: Salmisaari—Sörnäinen—Vallila(1984–2007), Salmisaari-Sörnäinen-Vallila-Arabia (2007–2011), Saukonpaasi-Sörnäinen-Vallila-Arabia (2012 onwards).[57]
  • 9: Kolmikulma—Kallio—Itä-Pasila (2008 onwards),[58] West Harbour ferry terminal—Kallio—Itä-Pasila (2012-08-13 onwards)
  • 10: Kirurgi—Ruskeasuo (1985–1990), Kirurgi-Pikku-Huopalahti (1991 onwards).[59]
  • Museum line (unnumbered): Kauppatori—Kruunuhaka—Rautatientori—Kauppatori (2009 onwards), circular.[65]
  • PUB: Rautatientori—Kallio—Töölö—Kauppatori—Rautatientori (1995 onwards), circular, restaurant line.[66]
  • Sightseeing: Rautatientori—Eira—Töölö—Kallio—Rautatientori (2010 onwards), circular, sightseeing line.[67]

Planned extension of the network[edit]

Decided and proposed expansions to the Helsinki tram network. Existing tracks in dark green and grey.

Helsinki Transport Council have made plans for a radical expansion of the tram network within the next 20–30 years. Below is a list of confirmed and proposed future expansions of the network. The construction of some of the expansions listed below as trolleybus lines was studied in a 2009 report by Helsinki City Transport,[68][69][70] but the city decided to drop the trolleybus plans for the foreseeable future in 2011.

Jätkäsaari and Munkkisaari[edit]

The freight harbour area in Jätkäsaari was freed for residential construction in late 2008 when the new Vuosaari Harbour opened for freight traffic. During the planning of the new district, the city decided to base the public transit in the area on extensions of the tram network. In the proposal approved by the public transport council on 11 December 2008, line 8 will be expanded into the new area from the north and another line (possibly line 9) from the east via Kamppi. By 2025 line 6 will be rerouted from its current terminus at Hietalahti south to Munkkisaari.[71][72] An earlier proposal featured the extension of lines 6, 8 and 9 into Jätkäsaari, but this was subsequently altered.[73][74] As of 2012, new tracks are being built as housing construction in the area advances.[71][75][76] The use of bi-directional trams was considered for the extensions,[18] but in the end, HKL decided to build the tracks with conventional return loops. The approximately 1 km long first phase of the extension of line 8 from Ruoholahti over a new bridge to Saukonpaasi in Jätkäsaari was completed in 2011 and opened for passenger traffic on 1 January 2012. In the second phase, the extension of line 9 from Kamppi to the ferry terminal in Jätkäsaari was opened on 13 August 2012. The final phase, planned to connect the two lines, is estimated to be complete by 2025.

Laajasalo[edit]

New residential areas are to be constructed to the island of Laajasalo, to the east of Helsinki city center, between 2010 and 2025. Following a recommendation by the public transport committee,[77][78] the Helsinki city council decided on 12 November 2008 that the new residential areas would be linked to the Helsinki city center by a tram connection built on bridges from Kruununhaka via Tervasaari, Sompasaari and Korkeasaari across the Kruunuvuorenselkä sea area and into Kruunuvuorenranta.[79] Three tram lines are projected to be constructed into Laajasalo; one will terminate in the residential development area of Kruunuvuorenranta, a second will extend into Yliskylä and a third line run into the southern central part of Laajasalo.[77]

The main competing alternative, an extension of Helsinki Metro, was found to be notably more expensive to construct and was projected to attract smaller passenger numbers than the tram.[80][81]

In addition to the approved three lines into Laajasalo, the city council approved a motion that in the further planning of the Laajasalo area tram, expanding the tram network to the Herttoniemi metro station should be investigated.[79] Additionally, in case that the military base in Santahamina will be freed for residential construction in the future, provisions will be made for converting the tram lines into a light rail system that would extend into Santahamina in the south and travel in a tunnel from Korkeasaari to Katajanokka, linking with the planned North-South line of the Helsinki Metro.[77]

Extensions to line 9[edit]

Line number 9, opened in August 2008, was originally planned as early as 1990 to link Ilmala with Merikatu in southern Ullanlinna. However, in the first phase of construction, the northern part of the route was truncated into Itä-Pasila in order to cut costs, while the southern terminus was placed in Kolmikulma due to opposition to tram tracks by people living along the planned new line.[18] The connection to Ilmala in the north was planned in 2008 to be completed in 2013,[76] but as of 2012, current projections have postponed the completion to 2017.

Although shortly before the opening of line 9 HKL stated the continuation to Merikatu had been abandoned permanently,[2] within weeks of the opening of the line, extending the route to Merikatu was again proposed, due to complaints from inhabitants of Ullanlinna following the termination of bus line 17. Subsequently the HKL stated they would be "actively acting to expand the tramline to Merikatu".[82] Interlacing the tracks on some sections on Korkeavuorenkatu is under consideration as a space-saving measure, allowing a larger amount of parking space to be maintained along the street.[83] At the time in 2008, HKL stated that a different line would be routed to Merikatu in the case that line 9 would go to Jätkäsaari instead.[84] The southern terminus of line 9 was ultimately extended to the West Harbour ferry terminal in Jätkäsaari and opened for traffic on 13 August 2012.

In addition to lengthening the line, moving the line from Kaarlenkatu and Helsinginkatu to Fleminginkatu in Kallio was proposed on 10 October 2008.[76]

Kalasatama[edit]

Like the harbour areas in Jätkäsaari and Kruunuvuorenranta, the freight harbour in Kalasatama was freed for residential construction in late 2008 when the new harbour in Vuosaari opened. The construction of new housing in Kalasatama is under way as of 2012, and the city plans to extend tram network into the area. A large shopping center complex with a number of residential towers is being planned at the existing Kalasatama metro station. The complex will have both a tramway and a metro line running through it. The tram tracks will be on a car-free, covered street, and the existing metro line and station on an above-grade level. Two tram lines are planned to be extended into the Kalasatama area, one from the west via Merihaka and another from the south, utilizing the Tervasaari-Sompasaari bridge that will be built for the Laajasalo tram connection.[77][80][81]

Munkkiniemi–Arabia/Kalasatama line[edit]

A private group consisting of members of the Finnish Tramway Society and students of Helsinki University of Technology drew up plans for a new tram line linking Arabia to Pasila railway station in order to improve the public transport connections of Kumpula.[85] Many consider the existing public transport connections sparse and unreliable. The proposed line, provisionally numbered line 5,[86] could either utilise the disused freight railway line in Southern Kumpula[85] or only existing tram tracks, including a stretch on Sturenkatu between Mäkelänkatu and Hämeentie that is only used for depot movements presently.[86] The proposal gained public interest,[87] and on 4 April 2009 the City Planning Board of Helsinki mandated that an official study would be made on a tram line linking Munkkiniemi to Arabia or Kalasatama via Pasila and Kumpula, with proviosions made for further lengthening the line to Otaniemi (in Espoo) in the west and to Viikki in the east.[88]

Munkkivuori[edit]

Helsinki Region Transport (HSL) has prepared plans for an extension to the residential area of Munkkivuori. The extension has been debated since the district was built in the 1950s. The bus lines that serve the area carry about 5 million passengers per year as of 2012, which is a sufficient ridership for a tram line. The bus lines have been criticised for being slow and having unpredictable running times. HSL collected comments from the public on several different alignment options in March and April 2012.[89] However, there is no decision on the funding or construction of the extension.

Topeliuksenkatu[edit]

A tramway has been planned on the Topeliuksenkatu street in Töölö. The tracks would run along Topeliuksenkatu from Runeberginkatu to Mannerheimintie, in parallel to the tramway on Mannerheimintie. This would provide additional capacity and a faster route in the direction of Mannerheimintie. The Topeliuksenkatu tramway is widely considered to be a requirement for further extensions of lines 4 and 10, which include the Munkkivuori extension. This tramway was one of the proposals in a 2006 study named "Ratikka 2015" ("Tram 2015"). [74][80][90]

Jokeri line[edit]

In 1990, a plan was made for an orbital light rail route connecting Itäkeskus in the East to Leppävaara in the West, making stops at several rapid transit stations and various suburbs in eastern and northern Helsinki on the way. The planned line was named Jokeri ("The Joker", after the playing card). Due to small projected passenger numbers, the line was eventually realised in 2003 as a bus connection from Itäkeskus to Tapiola via Leppävaara, with an upgrade to light rail postponed to after 2030. The line makes connections with the commuter rail network at Oulunkylä, Huopalahti, Pitäjänmäki and Leppävaara, and with the Metro in Itäkeskus and, in the future, in Tapiola.

After the line was opened, passenger numbers exceeded expectations and available capacity. The planning process for converting Jokeri into a light rail line was started in 2008,[92] and the preliminary plan was completed in May 2009.[93][94] However, the decision to move forward to construction has been postponed several times since then. In the current comprehensive regional plan of Helsinki Region Transport, the rail conversion of the Jokeri line is listed last in the order of priorities, behind a number of bus corridor, heavy-rail metro and commuter train projects.[95] In a 2012 funding plan, the city of Helsinki allocated funds for beginning detailed planning in 2013 and construction work in 2016.

The Jokeri line is planned to be built either with a rail gauge of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in), making it compatible with the existing Helsinki tram network, or a gauge of 1,524 mm (5 ft), making it compatible with the Helsinki Metro and the Finnish railway network.[96] A 2003 study about the integration of a possible light rail system into the existing heavy rail Helsinki Metro concluded that such an integration would be difficult without implementing either large-scale changes to the Metro network, or impractical and expensive solutions for the light rail system.[97] In contrast, the current tram network could relatively easily be extended to connect with the Jokeri alignment at several locations by building short sections of new double track. In April 2012, the board of HKL (the operator of both the trams and the metro) expressed as their position that the Jokeri line should be built with 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) rail gauge.

Other possibilities[edit]

The possibility of extending line 1 (and 1A) to the Käpylä railway station (or further to Oulunkylä) in the north and rerouting the same line through the unused tracks on Linjat in Kallio have been brought up as possible future projects to improve passenger numbers on the unpopular line.[98] A 2012 proposal for the reorganization of surface traffic after the completion of the "Pisara" connection included an extension of line 1 to the Käpylä station, but for a different reason. The Helsinki City Rail Loop is an underground loop of the commuter railway network that would distribute passengers to three new underground stations in central Helsinki, instead of the existing Central railway station. The proposal for after the city rail loop construction for surface traffic includes a new bus terminal at Käpylä. Bus lines that currently continue to the city centre would terminate at the Käpylä station, where the passengers could make a connection to commuter trains or an extended tram line 1.

In addition to the above, expansion of the tram network from Arabia to Viikki, Käpylä to Koskela and Pikku-Huopalahti to Haaga have been mentioned as potential long-term projects.[80]

A construction of a light rail or tram system has also been proposed as a possible solution of arranging public transport in the Östersundom area annexed by Helsinki from Vantaa and Sipoo on 1 January 2009. An extension of the Helsinki Metro was originally planned as the main form of public transport for this area, but on 20 February 2009 a newspaper reported that a light rail system is being studied as an alternative to supplement or replace the Metro connection to this area due to the lower costs of a light rail link.[99][100] If built, the light rail link could be extended as far as the nearby city of Porvoo.[100] Östersundom is located in eastern Helsinki, and as such the proposed new system would be completely unconnected with the currently existing tram system. It could, however, connect with the future Jokeri line in Itäkeskus.

2012 funding plan[edit]

In April 2012, the city approved a plan for funding traffic infrastructure projects, including tram network projects, for 2013-2017.[101] These plans are subject to continuous reviews and changes. The allocations of funds are in millions of euros.

Project total, M€ 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Jätkäsaari, Kamppi - Länsiterminaali 6.5 6.5
Jätkäsaari, Telakkakatu 6.0 3.0 3.0
Kalasatama, phase 1 6.0 2.0 4.0
Kruunuvuorenranta, tramway bridge 200.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 65.0 65.0
Street rebuild at Market Square 10.0 10.0
Line 9 extension to Ilmala 13.4 0.9 1.8 2.7 4.0 4.0
Topeliuksenkatu 8.55 6.15 2.4
Jokeri (Helsinki only) 122.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 35.0 35.0

Notes:

  • The Kruunuvuorenranta bridge is planned to be a future landmark in Helsinki, a 1 km long cable-stayed bridge for trams, pedestrians and bicyclists. This funding plan does not include the tramways in the Kruunuvuorenranta residential district itself.
  • The Jokeri line extends to the Espoo municipality. This plan only covers the part within the borders of Helsinki.
  • The rebuild of the street environment at the Market Square aims to make the area more lively and pedestrian-friendly, not to expedite tram traffic. The planned reconfiguration of the tram tracks has been criticized for hampering tram operations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  2. ^ a b c Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  3. ^ "HKL Tram Traffic". SRS. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
  4. ^ Stadin Ratikat
  5. ^ Helsinki Urban Traffic Control Centre
  6. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  7. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  8. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  9. ^ a b c d e f g www.kaupunkiliikenne.net
  10. ^ a b c Finnish Tramway Society
  11. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  12. ^ Helsingin Kaupunki: Kaupunkisuunnitteluvirasto
  13. ^ Helsingin Kaupunki: Kaupunkisuunnitteluvirasto
  14. ^ Vartti.fi
  15. ^ Mirva Haltia-Holmberg
  16. ^ a b c Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  17. ^ Transtech Oy
  18. ^ a b c Antero Alku
  19. ^ a b Hanna Sirkiä
  20. ^ a b c Antero Alku, pp. 20-21
  21. ^ Timo Herranen, pp. 29-31
  22. ^ a b c Timo Herranen, pp. 37-45
  23. ^ a b Timo Herranen, pp. 46-49
  24. ^ a b c d Finnish Tramway Society
  25. ^ a b c Finnish Tramway Society
  26. ^ a b c d Timo Herranen, pp. 50-54
  27. ^ a b Finnish Tramway Society, p. 1
  28. ^ Finnish Tramway Society, p. 3
  29. ^ a b Finnish Tramway Society
  30. ^ a b c d Finnish Tramway Society
  31. ^ a b c Finnish Tramway Society
  32. ^ a b Finnish Tramway Society
  33. ^ Markku Nummelin, pp. 64–74
  34. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  35. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  36. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  37. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  38. ^ Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  39. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  40. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  41. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  42. ^ Hankintailmoitus, erityisalat: Helsingin kaupunki: Raitiovaunujen hankinta
  43. ^ Mirva Haltia-Holmberg
  44. ^ Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  45. ^ a b c d e Finnish Tramway Society
  46. ^ a b "Kulttuuriratikka poistuu linjaliikenteestä tilausajoon" (in Finnish). HSL (Helsinki Region Transport). 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-03. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f g Finnish Tramway Society
  48. ^ a b c d e f Finnish Tramway Society
  49. ^ a b c d Finnish Tramway Society
  50. ^ a b Finnish Tramway Society
  51. ^ a b Finnish Tramway Society
  52. ^ a b Finnish Tramway Society
  53. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  54. ^ a b c d Finnish Tramway Society
  55. ^ a b c d e f g Finnish Tramway Society
  56. ^ a b c Finnish Tramway Society
  57. ^ a b c d Finnish Tramway Society
  58. ^ a b c Finnish Tramway Society
  59. ^ a b c d e f Finnish Tramway Society
  60. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  61. ^ a b c d Finnish Tramway Society
  62. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  63. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  64. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  65. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  66. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  67. ^ Finnish Tramway Society
  68. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  69. ^ Helsingin Kaupungin Liikennelaitos
  70. ^ Mirva Haltia-Holmberg
  71. ^ a b Joukkoliikennelautakunta
  72. ^ Mirva Haltia-Holmberg
  73. ^ Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  74. ^ a b Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  75. ^ Kaupunkisuunnittelulautakunta
  76. ^ a b c Mirva Haltia-Holmberg
  77. ^ a b c d Helsingin kaupunki: Kaupunkisuunnitteluvirasto
  78. ^ Joukkoliikennelautakunta
  79. ^ a b Helsingin kaupunginvaltuusto
  80. ^ a b c d Finnish Tramway Society
  81. ^ a b Antero Alku
  82. ^ Joukkoliikennelautakunta
  83. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  84. ^ Ylen aikainen
  85. ^ a b Antero Alku
  86. ^ a b Antero Alku, Janne Peltola & Jonas Wahlbeck
  87. ^ Helsingin Uutiset
  88. ^ Kaupunkisuunnittelulautakunta
  89. ^ "Munkkivuoren raitiotietä suunnitellaan keväällä 2012". HRT. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  90. ^ Kaupunkisuunnittelulautakunta
  91. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  92. ^ www.kaupunkiliikenne.net
  93. ^ Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  94. ^ www.raidejokeri.info
  95. ^ Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos
  96. ^ Kaupunkisuunnittelulautakunta
  97. ^ Antero Alku
  98. ^ Mirva Haltia-Holmberg
  99. ^ Marketta Karjalainen
  100. ^ a b YLE
  101. ^ "Liikenneinvestointien talousarvioehdotusvuodeksi 2013 sekäinvestointiohjelmaehdotus vuosiksi 2014-17". City of Helsinki. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

Helsinki City Transport

Finnish Tramway Society

Helsingin Sanomat

Miscellaneous

External links[edit]