|Time zone||EST (UTC+2)|
Helwan (Arabic: حلوان Ḥelwān, IPA: [ħelˈwæːn]), also spelled Hilwan or Hulwan or Holwan, is a city in Egypt and part of Greater Cairo, on the bank of the Nile, opposite the ruins of Memphis. Originally a southern suburb of Cairo, it served as the capital of the now defunct Helwan Governorate from April 2008 to April 2011, after which it was re-incorporated into the Cairo Governorate. The kism of Helwan had a population of 643,327 at the 2006 population census.
Helwan has been identified with ancient Alphocranon, whose bishop Harpocration participated in the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The bishopric is mentioned in two Notitiae Episcopatuum. No longer a residential diocese, Alphocranon is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
The Khedivial Astronomical Observatory was built here 1903-1904, and was used to observe Halley's comet. Egypt's oldest and largest private psychiatric clinic, the Behman Hospital, was also constructed here in 1939.
In 1959 Helwan was chosen to serve as a site of a major industrial city, as part of President Gamal Abdel Nasser's attempts to industrialize Egypt. Throughout the 1960s it developed into a massive steel works zone, with numerous automobile factories being built. The site continues to use electricity from the Aswan Dam and iron ore from Egypt's western deserts. Helwan was gradually transformed in a mass suburb of Cairo for the working class.
In April 2008, the Helwan Governorate was split from the Cairo Governorate. It encompassed most of the suburbs, new compounds and villages located in the southern part of Cairo. The city of Helwan became the capital of the new governorate. Following the dissolution of the Helwan Governorate in April 2011, the city of Helwan was reincorporated into the Cairo Governorate.
Local industry includes iron, steel, textiles and cement. The area has hot sulphur springs, an astronomical observatory, the Helwan University and a burial chamber (discovered in 1946). It is the terminus of Cairo's light rail Metro Line 1. Also trams in Helwan serves the people.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh). Owing to its proximity to Cairo, its average monthly temperatures are quite similar, but it has a quite different distribution of humidity and its diurnal average temperature variation is slightly larger.
|Climate data for Helwan|
|Average high °C (°F)||18.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||13
|Average low °C (°F)||7.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||5
|Average humidity (%)||62||57||54||43||41||45||52||56||56||55||58||61||53.33|
|Source #1: Climate Charts|
|Source #2: Climate-Data.org|
The city of Helwan itself includes districts such as Wadi Hof, Hadayek Helwan, and Maasara.
- Sadd el-Kafara, one of the earliest prehistoric man made dams in the world.
- Harold Knox-Shaw, one of the earliest Astronomy specialists in Helwan Observatory.
- John Reynolds (astronomer), one of the earliest Astronomy specialists in Helwan Observatory & president of the English Royal Astronomical Society between 1935 and 1937.
- Operation Priha Helwan was striked in Priha-1.
- Tewfik Pasha died in his Palace at Helwan.
- The 6th Armoured Division (South Africa) was present at Helwan during WW II.
- The 82-BM-37 is known as Helwan M-69 82mm mortar.
- Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam Pasha lived in Helwan.
- Moataz Eno was born in Helwan.
- Cars produced at Helwan:
- Nasr 128
- Sahin 1.4S
- Sahin 1.6SL
- Zastava Florida In
- Fiat 1100
- Fiat 1300/1500
- Fiat 2300
- Polski Fiat 125p/FSO 125p
- FSO Polonez MR'83/MR'85
- FSO Polonez MR'86/MR'87/MR'89
- Fiat Ritmo
- Fiat Regata
- Fiat Tempra
- The English Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate was present in Helwan.
- Geoffrey Barkas designed the Operation Bertram while heading Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate.
- RAF Helwan was a British Military Airport.
- No. 112 Squadron RAF was stationed at Helwan.
- A crater on the 951 Gaspra asteroid was named after the spa city of Helwan.
- Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Population and Housing Census 2006, Population distribution by sex, gov: Cairo Retrieved on 2008-04-01.
- Siméon Vailhé, v. Alphocranon, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, col. 677
- Klaas A. Worp, A Checklist of Bishops in Byzantine Egypt (A.D. 325 - c. 750), in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 100 (1994) 283-318
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 829
- Beattie, Andrew. (2005) Cairo: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books. p. 196. ISBN 9781902669779
- "Helwan, Egypt: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Climate Charts. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "Climate: Helwan - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- (German) Helwan on Wikivoyage