Hemu

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Hemu
हेमू
Samrat
Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya.jpg
c. 1910s portrayal of Hemu Vikramaditya
Emperor of Hindustan
Reign 7 October 1556-5 November 1556
Coronation 7 October 1556
Predecessor Akbar
Successor Akbar
Regnal name
Vikramaditya (विक्रमादित्य)
Father Purandas[citation needed]
Born 1501[citation needed]
Alwar, Rajasthan[citation needed]
Died 5 November 1556
Panipat, Haryana
Religion Hinduism

Hemu (/ˈhˌm/; also known as Hemu Vikramaditya and Hemchandra Vikramaditya) (died 5 November 1556) was a Hindu emperor of North India during the 16th century CE, a period when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power in the region.

Born in a humble family, Hemu rose to become Chief of the Army and Prime Minister to Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Akbar and Humayun in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 consecutive battles.[1][2][3]

Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556,[verification needed] assuming the title of Vikramaditya that had been adopted by many Hindu kings since Vedic times.[3] He re-established native Hindu rule (albeit for a short duration) in North India, after over 350 years of Muslim (Turkic and Mughal) rule.

Early life[edit]

Contemporary accounts of Hemu's early life are fragmentary, due to his humble background, and often biased, because they were written by Mughal historians such as Bada'uni and Abu'l-Fazl who were employed by Hemu's rival, Akbar. Modern historians differ on his family's ancestral home and caste, and the place and year of his birth. What is generally accepted is that he was born in a Hindu family of limited means, and that he spent his childhood in the town of Rewari, in the Mewat region, south-west of Delhi.[3]:34[4] Due to his family's financial condition, Hemu at a young age started working as a tradesman, either as a green-grocer or selling saltpetre.[5][6]

Rise to fame[edit]

Portuguese colonial architecture in Hemu's Haveli in Rewari,[citation needed] which was renovated in 1540, when Hemu became 'Market Superintendent' in Delhi.

After Sher Shah Suri's death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became the ruler of the Sur Empire. Hemu too had risen from being a seller of saltpetre in Rewari to become the shuhna, the superintendent, of the market in Delhi with some soldierly experience under his belt.[2] The post gave him the opportunity to frequently interact with the king, having to apprise him of the trade and commercial situation of the kingdom.[7] Islam Shah soon began consulting Hemu in matters relating not only to commerce, but also pertaining to statesmanship, diplomacy and general politics.[8]:198 In 1550, Hemu accompanied the king to Punjab where he was deputed along with other high officers to receive Humayun's half-brother, Mirza Kamran, at the Rohtas Fort.[citation needed]

After serving as Shahang-i-Bazar for some time, Hemu rose to become Chief of Intelligence or Daroga-i-Chowki (Superintendent of Post).[9]:448 Islam Shah's health deteriorated in 1552 and he shifted his base from Delhi to Gwalior, which was considered safer. Hemu was deputed as Governor to Punjab to safeguard the region against a Mughal invasion. Hemu held this position until 30 October 1553, when Islam Shah died.[citation needed]

Islam Shah was succeeded by his 12-year-old son, Firoz Khan, who was killed within three days by Adil Shah Suri. The new king Adil was an indolent pleasure-seeker and a drunkard[10]:655 who neglected his affairs and faced revolts all around.[11]:35 Adil Shah took Hemu as his Chief Advisor and entrusted all his work to him,[12]:32 appointing him the prime minister and chief of his army.[8]:114[13] After some time, Adil Shah became insane and Hemu became the de facto king.[12]:32[13][14]

Many Afghan governors rebelled against the weak King Adil Shah and refused to pay tax, but Hemu quelled them. Ibrahim Khan, Sultan Muhhamad Khan, Taj Karrani, Rukh Khan Nurani and several other Afghan rebels were defeated and killed.[15]:9 At the battle of Chhapparghatta in December 1555, Hemu routed the Bengal forces under Muhammad Shah, who was killed in the battle.[6]

At the time, the Afghans were considered natives of the country, while the Mughals were considered foreigners.[3]:7 Hemu was a native ruler leading a native Afghan army to victory in battle after battle and thus, became popular among the Hindus as well as Afghans.[16]:4 This indicates that the rule which Hemu established was secular and nationalistic.[9]:448

Hemu's army[edit]

Hemu's army was a result of long process of military development during Sur rule in North India. Michael Bradwin[who?] states that Hemu's army was five times superior to the army of Akbar.[17] However, recruitment of Hindus considerably increased during his rule. His army consisted of infantry, cavalry, artillery and large elephants. His infantry ran on Portuguese lines.[12]:c5 Hemu, according to Maulana Muhammad Hussain Azad, was very proud of his artillery.[18] The superiority of artillery which the grandfather of Akbar enjoyed over the former's campaigns against the Lodhi ruler, was not seen there in this case. General Ramaiyya and Shadi Khan Kakkar, the Afghan governor from Sambhal, were two of his most noted generals who commanded large forces in the Second Battle of Panipat.[12]:c5

Victories against the Mughals[edit]

Agra Fort, won by Hemu in 1553, recaptured from Humayun in 1556, before capturing Delhi.
Gwalior Fort, from where Hemu launched most of the attacks during 1553-56, for his 22 battle victories.

After the victory of the Mughal ruler Humayun over Adil Shah's brother Sikander Suri, on 23 July 1555, the Mughals regained Punjab, Delhi and Agra after a gap of 15 years. Hemu was in Bengal when Humayun died on 26 January 1556. Humayun's death gave Hemu an ideal opportunity to defeat the Mughals. He started a rapid march from Bengal through present day Bihar, Eastern UP and Madhya Pradesh. The Mughal fauzdars abandoned their positions and fled in panic before him. In Agra, an important Mughal stronghold, the commander of Mughal forces, Iskander Khan Uzbeg, fled without a fight after hearing of Hemu's invasion. Etawah, Kalpi and Bayana, all in present day central and western UP, fell to Hemu.[19][verification needed]

Hemu never saw defeat in battle and went from victory to victory throughout his life (he died in the only battle he lost).[10]:45 Hemu won the loyalty of his soldiers by his ready distribution of the spoils of war among his soldiers.[20]

After winning Agra, Hemu moved for the final assault on Delhi. Tardi Beg Khan, who was Governor of Delhi, for Akbar, wrote to Akbar and his regent, Bairam Khan, that Hemu had captured Agra and intended to attack the capital Delhi, which could not be defended without reinforcements.[16]:25 Bairam Khan, realising the gravity of the situation, sent his ablest lieutenant, Pir Muhammad Sharwani, to Tardi Beg. Tardi Beg Khan summoned all the Mughal commanders in the vicinity to a war council for the defence of Delhi. It was decided to stand and fight Hemu, and plans were made accordingly.

Sir Jadunath Sarkar writes in detail about the Battle for Delhi at Tughlaqabad:[21]:81

The Mughal army was thus drawn up. Abdullah Uzbeg commanded the Van, Haider Muhammad the right wing, Iskander Beg the left and Tardi Beg himself the centre. The choice Turki Cavalry in the van and left wing attacked and drove back the enemy forces before them and followed far in pursuit. In this assault the victors captured 400 elephants and slew 3000 men of the Afghan army. Imagining victory already gained, many of Tardi Beg's followers dispersed to plunder the enemy camp and he was left in the field thinly guarded. All this time Hemu had been holding 300 choice elephants and a force of select horsemen as a reserve in the centre. He promptly seized the opportunity and made a sudden charge upon Tardi Beg with this reserve.

Confusion ensued, resulting in a defeat for the Mughals. Hemu was helped by reinforcements from Alwar with a contingent commanded by Hazi Khan. The desertion of various Mughal commanders with Pir Muhhammad Khan, who fled the battlefield, to Tardi Beg's chagrin and surprise, forced the Mughal commander to withdraw.[citation needed]

Hemu won Delhi after a day's battle on 6 October 1556. Some 3000 soldiers died in this battle. However, Mughal forces led by Tardi Beg Khan vacated Delhi after a day's fight and Hemu entered Delhi, victorious under a royal canopy.[citation needed]

Coronation[edit]

Purana Quila, Delhi where Hemu was crowned on 7 October 1556.

Sir Wolsey Haig[22] writes, "Hemu was so elated by the capture of Delhi as to believe that he had already reached the goal of his ambition."

Vincent Smith, who names Hemu the third claimant to the sovereignty of Hindustan at the time (the other two being the Suris and Akbar), asserts that Hemu after his occupation of Delhi came to the conclusion that he had a better claim to the throne for himself rather than on behalf of Adil Shah and ventured to assume the royal state under the style of Raja Vikramaditya or Vikramaditya, a title borne by several renowned Hindu Kings in ancient times.[3]:37 Hemu assumed the royal robes and declared himself the Emperor of India under the title of Vikramaditya.[23][5]:100

His Afghan officers were reconciled to the ascendancy of an infidel by a liberal distribution of plunder,[24] and probably also by the fact that Hemu had proved to be a successful general.[16]:27

Hemu had his formal coronation at Purana Qila in Delhi on 7 October 1556[23] in the presence of all the Afghan Sardars and Hindu Senapatis (military commanders).[17]:7 He made various appointments on the occasion, appointing his brother, Jujharu Rai, governor of Ajmer and his nephew, Ramaiyya, a general in his army.[25] He also appointed his various supporters as Chhaudhuris and Muqqudams based on their merit so that they continued to maintain their respective positions in the reign of Akbar.[25]

Administration[edit]

Because of his long association with the Suri administration since the 1540s, first as a supplier of various items to Sher Shah Suri, then as Superintendent of Markets, Minister of Internal security and Governor of Punjab with Islam Shah, Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army with Adil Shah, Hemu had great experience in administration.[26]:45 Although he did not have much time to rule, Hemu revitalised the administration that had flagged after the demise of Sher Shah Suri. With his knowledge of trade and commerce, he gave fresh impetus to commerce throughout the country. He spared no one indulging in black-marketing, hoarding, overcharging and under-weighing of goods.[citation needed] After his conquest of[10]:619 Agra and Delhi, he replaced all corrupt officers. He also introduced coinage bearing his image.[22][10]:619

Second Battle of Panipat[edit]

Mural of second Battle of Panipat at war site, 'Kala Amb' Panipat.
A statue of Hemu at Panipat in modern Haryana.

On hearing of Hemu's serial victories and the fall of large territories like Agra and Delhi, the Mughal army at Kalanaur lost heart and many commanders refused to fight Hemu. Most of his commanders advised Akbar to retreat to Kabul, which would serve better as a strong-hold. However, Bairam Khan, Akbar's guardian and chief strategist, insisted on fighting Hemu in an effort to gain control of Delhi.[citation needed]

On 5 November 1556, the Mughal army met Hemu's army at the historic battlefield of Panipat. Bairam Khan exhorted his army in a speech with religious overtones and ordered them into battle. Akbar and Bairam Khan stayed in the rear, eight miles from the battleground, with the instructions to leave India in case of defeat. The Mughal army was led by Ali Kuli Khan, Sikandar Khan and Abdulla Khan Uzbeg.[26]:65 Hemu led his army himself into battle, atop an elephant. His left was led by his sister's son, General Ramaiyya, and the right by Shadi Khan Kakkar. He was on the cusp of victory, when he was wounded in the eye by an arrow, and collapsed unconscious. This triggered a panic in his army which scattered.[2] According to Abul Fazl, 5000 soldiers of Hemu were slain.[10]:71

Death and Aftermath[edit]

'Beheaded Skulls Minaret' built by Akbar's army after the Second Battle of Panipat.[verification needed]

The wounded Hemu was captured by Shah Quli Khan and carried to the Mughal camp.[2] According to Badayuni,[27] Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hemu so that he could earn the title of Ghazi. Akbar replied 'He is already dead, if he had any strength for a duel, I would have killed him'. After Akbar's refusal Hemu's body was denied honour by the Mughal battle tradition and was unceremoniously beheaded by Bairam Khan. Hemu's head was sent to Kabul where it was hung outside the Delhi Darwaza while his body was placed in a gibbet outside Purana Quila in Delhi.[citation needed]

After Hemu's death, a massacre of Hemu's community and followers was ordered by Bairam Khan. Thousands were beheaded and towers of skulls were built with their heads, to instil terror among the Hindus and Afghans. These towers were still in existence about 60 years later as described by Peter Mundy, an English traveler who visited India during the time of Jahangir.[citation needed]

Legacy[edit]

Hemu's rise from his humble beginnings in Rewari to the assumption of the royal title of Raja Vikramaditya is considered a notable turning point in history. But for the stray arrow in a battle where he was in a position of strength, Hemu Vikramaditya could well have brought about a restoration of a "Sanskritic/Brahminical monarchical tradition" to a region which had been subject to Muslim rule for centuries.[28][verification needed]

Colonel H.C. Kar comments:[23] "He assumed the title of Vikramaditya. He emerged as a monarch in his own right and the only Hindu to occupy the throne of Delhi during the medieval history of India. Himself a staunch Hindu, he had no disrespect for any religion, Islam or Christianity". Kar also notes that Hemu's rule was on the pattern of the Vijayanagara Empire, a strong Hindu state prevailing in South India for more than three centuries.[23]

John Clark Marshman wrote in 1873:[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1960). Military History of India. Orient Longmans. p. 67. 
  2. ^ a b c d Chandra, Satish (2004). Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals: Part I: Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526). Har-Anand Publications. pp. 91–93. ISBN 9788124110669. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Smith, Vincent Arthur (1917). Akbar the Great Mogul, 1542–1605. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. pp. 32–40. 
  4. ^ Erskine, William (1854). A History of India Under the Two First Sovereigns of the House of Taimur, Báber and Humáyun, Volume 2. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. pp. 490–493. 
  5. ^ a b Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1984). "Hemu: A forgotten Hindu Hero". The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume 7: The Mughal Empire. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 
  6. ^ a b Sarker, Sunil Kumar (1 January 1994). Himu, the Hindu "Hero" of Medieval India: Against the Background of Afghan-Mughal Conflicts. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 36–56. ISBN 978-81-7156-483-5. 
  7. ^ Rahim, Muhammad Abdur (1961). History of the Afghans in India, A.D. 1545-1631: with especial reference to their relations with the Mughals. Pakistan Pub. House. p. 94. 
  8. ^ a b Tabaqat-I-Akbari written by Nizamuddin Ahmad (translation by Brajendranath De), Vol II
  9. ^ a b Qanungo, Kalika Ranjan (1965). Sher Shah and his Times. Orient Longmans. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Akbarnama Vol II, By Abul Fazl
  11. ^ AKI Ahirwal Ka Itihas By Dr. K.C. Yadav
  12. ^ a b c d HEMU Life and Times of Hemchandra Vikramaditya By R.K. Bhardwaj; Hope India Publications, Gurgaon
  13. ^ a b De Laet, "The Empire of the Great Mogul", pp.140–41
  14. ^ Rise and fall of Mughal Empire, By Tripathi, page 158,
  15. ^ Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya By Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya Dhusar Bhargava Memorial Charitable Trust, printed by Rakmo Printers, New Delhi
  16. ^ a b c Bhardwaj, K. K. "Hemu-Napoleon of Medieval India", Mittal Publications, New Delhi
  17. ^ a b Rahul Sankrityayana, Akbar, Chapter 1, page 5–10
  18. ^ Muhammad Hussain Azad, 'Akhri Darbar', (Hindi Translation by Ram Kumar Verma), Vol.1, page50
  19. ^ Ferishta, Briggs trs., pp. 183-190
  20. ^ Prasad, Ishwari (1974). The Mughal Empire. Chugh Publications. p. 197. ISBN 9780521566032. 
  21. ^ Roy, Nirod Bhushan (1934). The Successors of Sher Shah. 
  22. ^ a b The Cambridge History of India, Volume IV, The Mughal Period, Delhi (1965), page 72
  23. ^ a b c d Kar, L. Colonel H. C. "Military History of India", Calcutta (1980), p.283
  24. ^ Akbar, By Dr. Qureshi (Delhi, 1978), p.51
  25. ^ a b Hemu and His Times, by M. L. Bhargava, Reliance Publishing House, 1991, New Delhi, page 91
  26. ^ a b Dr. Parshu Ram Gupt, "Rashtra Gaurav Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya", Gorakhpur
  27. ^ Abdul Quadir Badayuni, Muntkhib-ul-Tawarikh, Volume 1, page 6
  28. ^ Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire (The New Cambridge History of India). Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780521566032. 
  29. ^ John Clark Marshman, The History of India from the Earliest Period to the Present Time, London (1873), page 50.