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Microscopic hematuria
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 N02, R31
ICD-9 599.7, 791.2
DiseasesDB 19635
MedlinePlus 003138
eMedicine ped/951
Patient UK Hematuria
MeSH D006417

In medicine, hematuria, or haematuria, is the presence of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine. It may be idiopathic and/or benign, or it can be a sign that there is a kidney stone or a tumor in the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, prostate, and urethra), ranging from trivial to lethal. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection.

Occasionally "hemoglobinuria" is used synonymously, although more precisely it refers only to hemoglobin in the urine.


Red discoloration of the urine can have various causes:


Acute hematuria due to trauma.

Often, the diagnosis is made on the basis of the medical history and some blood tests—especially in young people in whom the risk of malignancy is negligible and the symptoms are generally self-limiting.

Ultrasound investigation of the renal tract is often used to distinguish between various sources of bleeding. X-rays can be used to identify kidney stones, although CT scanning is more precise.

In older patients, cystoscopy with biopsy of suspected lesions is often employed to investigate for bladder cancer.

If combined with pain, it may be loin pain hematuria syndrome.[1]


The most common causes of hematuria[2] are:

Other, less common causes of hematuria include:

Rare causes include:

Others signs that resemble hematuria include:


  1. ^ Spetie, DN.; Nadasdy, T.; Nadasdy, G.; Agarwal, G.; Mauer, M.; Agarwal, AK.; Khabiri, H.; Nagaraja, HN. et al. (Mar 2006). "Proposed pathogenesis of idiopathic loin pain-hematuria syndrome". Am J Kidney Dis 47 (3): 419–27. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.11.029. PMID 16490620. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Hematuria Causes Original Date of Publication: 15 Jun 1998. Reviewed by: Stacy J. Childs, M.D., Stanley J. Swierzewski, III, M.D. Last Reviewed: 10 Jul 2008
  3. ^ Norman L. Browse/4th/436
  4. ^ Koshy, CG.; Govil, S.; Shyamkumar, NK.; Devasia, A. (Jan 2009). "Bladder varices--rare cause of painless hematuria in idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis.". Urology 73 (1): 58–9. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2008.06.039. PMID 18722652. 
  5. ^ Graham, DM.; McMorris, MS.; Flynn, JT. (Nov 2002). "Episodic gross hematuria in association with allergy symptoms in a child.". Clin Nephrol 58 (5): 389–92. doi:10.5414/cnp58389. PMID 12425491. 
  6. ^ Russo, D.; Minutolo, R.; Iaccarino, V.; Andreucci, M.; Capuano, A.; Savino, FA. (Sep 1998). "Gross hematuria of uncommon origin: the nutcracker syndrome.". Am J Kidney Dis 32 (3): E3. doi:10.1053/ajkd.1998.v32.pm10074588. PMID 10074588. 
  7. ^ Ureteral Pelvic Junction Obstruction (UPJ) / Ureteral Obstruction