Henny Penny, more commonly known as Chicken Little and sometimes as Chicken Licken, is a folk tale with a moral in the form of a cumulative tale about a chicken who believes the world is coming to an end. The phrase "The sky is falling!" features prominently in the story, and has passed into the English language as a common idiom indicating a hysterical or mistaken belief that disaster is imminent. Versions of the story go back more than 25 centuries; it continues to be referenced in a variety of media.
The story and its name
The story is listed as Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 20C, which includes international examples of folktales that make light of paranoia and mass hysteria. There are several Western versions of the story, of which the best-known concerns a chick that believes the sky is falling when an acorn falls on its head. The chick decides to tell the King and on its journey meets other animals (mostly other fowl) which join it in the quest. After this point, there are many endings. In the most familiar, a fox invites them to its lair and there eats them all. Alternatively, the last one, usually Cocky Lockey, survives long enough to warn the chick, who escapes. In others all are rescued and finally speak to the King.
In most retellings, the animals have rhyming names, commonly Chicken Licken or Chicken Little, Henny Penny or Hen-Len, Cocky Locky, Ducky Lucky or Ducky Daddles, Drakey Lakey, Goosey Loosey or Goosey Poosey, Gander Lander, Turkey Lurkey and Foxy Loxy or Foxy Woxy.
The moral to be drawn changes, depending on the version. Where there is a "happy ending", the moral is not to be a "Chicken" but to have courage. In other versions where the birds are eaten by the fox, the fable is interpreted as a warning not to believe everything one is told.
In English, the most common name for the story is "Chicken Little", as attested by illustrated books for children dating from the early 19th century. In Britain and its former colonies, it is also known as "Henny Penny" and "Chicken Licken", although these are less common within the United States.[note 1]
In 1840, in Roxbury, Massachussetts, author J. G. Chandler published an illustrated children's book titled The Remarkable Story of Chicken Little. In this American version of the story, the characters' names are Chicken Little, Hen-Pen, Duck-Luck, Goose-Loose, and Fox-Lox; Chicken Little is frightened by a leaf falling on her tail.
A Scots version of the tale is found in Robert Chambers's Popular Rhymes, Fireside Stories, and Amusements of Scotland of 1842. The characters are Henny Penny, Cocky Locky, Ducky Daddles, Goosie Poosie, and an unnamed "tod" (fox). Henny Penny became convinced that "the lifts were faun" (the heavens were falling) when a pea fell on her head.
In 1849, an English version was published featuring Chicken-licken, Hen-len, Cock-lock, Duck-luck, Drake-lake, Goose-loose, Gander-lander, Turkey-lurkey and Fox-lox. Chicken-licken was startled when "an acorn fell on her bald pate".
In the Scots and English versions of the story, the animals want "to tell the king" that the skies are falling; while in the American version they are not given any specific motivation. In all three versions, they end up eaten by the fox.
The name "Chicken Little" — and the fable's central phrase — The sky is falling! - have been applied to people accused of being unreasonably afraid, or those trying to incite an unreasonable fear in those around them.
The first use of the name "Chicken Little" to "one who warns of or predicts calamity, especially without justification" recorded by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is in 1895, but idiomatic use of the name significantly predates that attestation. In fact, this usage is recorded in the United States very soon after the publication of Chandler's illustrated children's book in 1840. Already, in 1842, a journal article about the Government of Haiti referred to "Chicken Little" in an offhand manner. An "oration" delivered to the city of Boston on July 4, 1844, contains the passage:
To hear their harangues on the eve of the election, one would suppose that the fable of Chicken Little was about to become a truth, and that the sky was actually falling.
Fear mongering — whether justified or not — can sometimes elicit a societal response called Chicken Little syndrome, described as "inferring catastrophic conclusions possibly resulting in paralysis". It has also been defined as "a sense of despair or passivity which blocks the audience from actions". The term began appearing in the 1950s and the phenomenon has been noted in many different societal contexts.
Walt Disney Pictures has made two animated versions of the story. The first was Chicken Little, an animated short released during World War II as one of a series produced at the request of the U.S. government for the purpose of discrediting Nazism. It tells a variant of the parable in which Foxy Loxy takes the advice of a book on psychology (on the original 1943 cut, it is Mein Kampf) by striking the least intelligent first. Dim-witted Chicken Little is convinced by him that the sky is falling and whips the farmyard into mass hysteria, which the unscrupulous fox manipulates for his own benefit. The dark comedy is used as an allegory for the idea that fear-mongering weakens the war effort and costs lives. It is also one of the versions of the story in which Chicken Little appears as a character distinct from Henny Penny.
The second Disney film was the very loosely adapted Chicken Little, released in 2005 as a computer-animated feature. It is an updated science fiction sequel to the original fable in which Chicken Little is partly justified in his fears. In this version, Foxy Loxy is changed from a male to a female, and from the main antagonist to a local bully.
Another film adaptation was the animated TV episode "Henny Penny" (1999), which was part of the series Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child. In this modern update the story is given a satirical and political interpretation.
On the sitcom The Golden Girls, there was a 1991 episode in which the characters perform a short musical based on the fable (here titled "Henny Panny") at a school recital. This was followed in 1998 by Joy Chaitin and Sarah Stevens-Estabrook's equally light-hearted musical version of the fable, "Henny Penny". Designed for between six and a hundred junior actors, it has additional characters as optional extras: Funky Monkey, Sheepy Weepy, Mama Llama, Pandy Handy and Giraffy Laughy (plus an aggressive oak-tree).
There have also been a number of musical settings. American composer Vincent Persichetti used the fable as the plot of his only opera The Sibyl: A Parable of Chicken Little (Parable XX), op. 135 (1976), which premiered in 1985. In 2007 American singer and composer Gary Bachlund set the text of Margaret Free’s reading version of “Chicken Little” (The Primer, 1910) for high voice and piano. In his note to the score Bachlund makes it clear that he intends a reference to alarmism and its tragic consequences.
In Singapore a more involved musical was performed in 2005. This was Brian Seward's The Acorn - the true story of Chicken Licken. It is a tale of mixed motivations as certain creatures (including some among the 'good guys') take advantage of the panic caused by Chicken Licken.
There are many novels, films, CDs and songs titled "The Sky is Falling", but the majority refer to the idiomatic use of the phrase rather than to the fable from which it derives. The following are some lyrics which genuinely refer or allude to the story:
- During the later 1940s, Lightnin’ Hopkins had a song titled "Henny Penny Blues", largely on the strength of the line, "She's my little chicken, she's my honey pie". In 2005 the Canadian poet David Pekrul borrowed the title for a lyric of his own, satirising those too quick to believe prophecies of doom.
- British band Happy Mondays have the lines "Henny Penny, Cocky Locky, Goosey Loosey, Turkey Lurkey, Ducky Lucky, Chicken Little, It seems they are all on the move when the sun is falling in" in the song "Moving in with" on their second album, Bummed (1986).
- The Aerosmith song "Livin' on the Edge" (1993) has the lines "If Chicken Little tells you that the sky is falling, Even if it wasn't would you still come crawling back again?"
- "Chicken Little" is a song from the 1997 album Fancy, by the California avantrock band Idiot Flesh; it contains the line, "The sky is falling, gotta tell the king".
- "The Sky Is Falling" is a song by Owsley from the 1999 debut album Owsley; it includes the line "Chicken Little had a big day today".
- The British rock band Radiohead references the tale in the songs "2 + 2 = 5" and "Where I End and You Begin" on the album Hail to the Thief (2003).
A very early example containing the basic motif and many of the elements of the tale is some 25 centuries old and appears in the Buddhist scriptures as the Daddabha Jataka (J 322). In it, the Buddha, on hearing about some particular religious practices, comments that there is no special merit in them, but rather that they are "like the noise the hare heard." He then tells the story of a hare disturbed by a falling fruit who believes that the earth is coming to an end. The hare starts a stampede among the other animals until a lion halts them, investigates the cause of the panic and restores calm. The fable teaches the necessity for deductive reasoning and subsequent investigation.
The Tibetan version of the Jataka tale has been told in rhyme by Australian author Ursula Dubosarsky in her book "The Terrible Plop" (2009), which has since been dramatised, using the original title "Plop!". In this, the animal stampede is halted by a bear, rather than a lion. The ending has been changed from the Tibetan original as well.
There also exists a Br'er Rabbit story that is closer to the Eastern versions. In this story, Br'er Rabbit initiates the panic but does not take part in the mass flight, although Br'er Fox does. In this case it is Br'er Terrapin that leads the animals back to question Br'er Rabbit.
- Before Lightnin' Hopkins' "Henny Penny Blues" from the 1940s, there was a 1906 comic strip version - C365 in the Opie collection; a more recent instance is the Golden Girls' TV skit titled "Henny Penny" (1991). The Yale Book of Quotations cites the nursery tale "Chicken Licken" as the source for 'the sky is falling' (page 21) and the character is mentioned in John Cheever's short story "The 5.48".
- The End of the World The Sky Is Falling, folktales of Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 20C (including former type 2033), in which storytellers from around the world make light of paranoia and mass hysteria, selected and edited by D. L. Ashliman, 1999
- Chandler, John Greene (1840). The Remarkable Story of Chicken Little. Roxbury, MA: J.G. Chandler. OCLC 191238925.
- The text of the story is reprinted in Fowle, William Bentley (1856). The Mind and Heart, Or, School and Fireside Reading for Children. Boston, MA: Morris Cotton. pp. 121–122. OCLC 27730411.
- Chambers, Robert (1842). Popular Rhymes, Fireside Stories, and Amusements of Scotland. Edinburgh: William and Robert Chambers. pp. 51–52. OCLC 316602150.
- Halliwell, James Orchard (1849). Popular rhymes and nursery tales: a sequel to the Nursery rhymes of England. London: John Russell Smith. pp. 29–30. OCLC 3155930.
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Life in Hayti", in The Knickerbocker, or New York monthly magazine, volume xix. New York: John Bisco. 1842. p. 454.: "In the words of an infantile philosophyer, yclept 'Chicken Little', how can he help knowing it?"
- Chandler, Peleg W. The Morals of Freedom: An Oration delivered Before the Authorities of the City of Boston July 4, 1844. Boston, MA: John H. Eastburn. p. 29. OCLC 982157.
- Landry, John R. (1998). "Can Mission Statements Plant the "Seeds" of Dysfunctional Behaviors in an Organization's Memory?". "Proceedings of the Thirty-First Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences". p. 169. CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.108.2917.
- Li, Xinghua, "Communicating the "incommunicable green": a comparative study of the structures of desire in environmental advertising in the United States and China", PhD diss., p.81, University of Iowa, 2010.
- See, e.g., Audio Visual Communication Review, v.3-4, pp. 226-227, National Education Association of the United States Dept. of Audiovisual Instruction, 1955
- Walt Disney (1943), available at Youtube
- "Henny Penny". YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Henny Penny: A Play with Optional Music. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Chicken Little (2007), Margaret Free and Harriette Taylor Treadwell, originally for high voice and piano". Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Brian Seward - Playwright". Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "The True Story of Chicken Licken". YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Happy Mondays - Moving In With". YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Aerosmith - Livin' On The Edge (Lyrics)". YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Idiot Flesh - Chicken Little". YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- ""The Sky Is Falling" by The Semantics". YouTube. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Q, July 2003
- "Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part III, retold by Ken & Visakha Kawasaki". Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Joel Chandler Harris, Nights with Uncle Remus: Myths and Legends of the Old Plantation (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company, 1883), no. 20, pp. 108-13. Online at Brother Rabbit Takes Some Exercise, at The End of the World The Sky Is Falling, folktales of Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 20C (including former type 2033), in which storytellers from around the world make light of paranoia and mass hysteria, selected and edited by D. L. Ashliman, 1999
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