Henri Langlois

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois.jpg
Born (1914-11-13)13 November 1914
İzmir, Ottoman Empire
Died 13 January 1977(1977-01-13) (aged 62)
Paris, France
Occupation Co-founder and director of the Cinémathèque Française
Known for Film preservation, film archiving, film history. cinephilia
Partner(s) Mary Meerson

Henri Langlois (13 November 1914 – 13 January 1977) was a French film archivist and cinephile. A pioneer of film preservation, Langlois was an influential figure in the history of cinema. His film screenings in Paris in the 1950s are often credited with providing the ideas that led to the development of the auteur theory.[1][2][3]

Langlois was co-founder of the Cinémathèque Française with Georges Franju and Jean Mitry and also co-founder of the International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF) in 1938. Through close collaboration with the Cinémathèque's longtime Chief Archivist, Lotte Eisner, he worked to preserve films and film history in the post-war era. An eccentric who was often at the center of controversy for his methods,[4] he also served as a key influence on the generation of young cinephiles and critics who would become the French New Wave.

In 1974, Langlois received an honorary Academy Award for "his devotion to the art of film, his massive contributions in preserving its past and his unswerving faith in its future".[5]

Career at the Cinémathèque Française[edit]

Born in İzmir, Ottoman Empire, in 1936 Henri Langlois, Georges Franju and Jean Mitry founded the Cinémathèque Française in Paris, their film theater and museum.[6] It grew from ten films in 1936 to more than 60,000 films by the early 1970s. More than an archivist, Langlois saved many films which were at risk of vanishing. Besides films, Langlois also helped to preserve other items related to cinema such as cameras, projection machines, costumes, and vintage theater programmes. He eventually collected so many items that he donated them to the Palais de Chaillot, where they cover a two-mile span of film artifacts and memorabilia. The collection was relocated due to damage from a fire in 1997.

During the Second World War, Langlois and his colleagues helped to save many films that were at risk of being destroyed due to the Nazi occupation of France.

Langlois strongly influenced the French New Wave directors François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard,[3] Jacques Rivette, Claude Chabrol and Alain Resnais among others, and the generation of filmmakers that followed. Some of these filmmakers were called les enfants de la cinémathèque ("children of the cinémathèque"), as they could often be found in the front row of packed screenings.

Langlois' romantic attitude to film was in contrast to the scientific approach utilised by Ernest Lindgren at Britain's National Film Archive.[7] Langlois' methods were unconventional. He was accused of having no rational approach to record keeping. The Cinémathèque lost a portion of its collection to a nitrate fire on 10 July 1959. Sources are in conflict as to the cause and the extent of the loss.[7]

In September 1959, a rift developed between the Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film (FIAF) and the Cinémathèque. Langlois had been involved in the founding of FIAF. The dispute between the two bodies was resolved only some years after Langlois had died.[8]

Removal and reinstatement[edit]

In 1968, French culture minister André Malraux tried to fire Langlois by stopping funding of the project, due to the latter's arrogance and iron-fisted rule of the museum.

Local and international uproar ensued, and even the prestigious Cannes Film Festival was halted in protest that year. Protesters in Paris included the New Wave filmmakers and activist Daniel Cohn-Bendit. Support came in telegrams from renowned directors, from Alfred Hitchcock to Kurosawa to Fellini to Gianni Serra. Malraux eventually reinstated Langlois after intense debate, while reducing museum funding. Truffaut opens Stolen Kisses (1968) with a shot of the shuttered and locked Cinémathèque and dedicates the film to Langlois.

Later life[edit]

In 1974, Langlois received an honorary Academy Award for his lifetime work with the Cinémathèque. He died three years later and is interred in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris.

Place Henri Langlois in the 13th arrondissement in Paris is named in his honour.

Documentaries about Langlois[edit]

In 1970, an English language documentary Henri Langlois was made about his life's work, featuring interviews with Ingrid Bergman, Lillian Gish, François Truffaut, Catherine Deneuve, Jeanne Moreau and others. The film was produced and directed by Roberto Guerra & Eila Hershon.[9]

In 2004–2005, Jacques Richard directed another documentary of Langlois's career, The Phantom of the Cinémathèque.[10] It features interviews with friends, colleagues, academics, and such movie luminaries as Simone Signoret, Godard, Chabrol, Truffaut and his spiritual successor Jean-Michel Arnold.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Leisure Time Film Catalogue - HENRI LANGLOIS: PHANTOM OF THE CINEMATHEQUE
  2. ^ Truffaut’s manifesto : La Politique des Auteurs at Indian Auteur
  3. ^ a b Wollen, Peter (2004). "The Auteur Theory". In Shepherdson, K. J. Film theory: critical concepts in media and cultural studie. Routledge. ISBN 0415259738. 
  4. ^ "HENRI LANGLOIS, 62, HISTORIAN OF FILM; Director of La Cinematheque Dies-- Founded French Archives in '36 --Collected 50,000 Movies Center of Controversy Eccentric Work Methods". The New York Times. January 14, 1977. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  5. ^ IMDB: Henri Langlois - Awards
  6. ^ "La Cinémathèque Française", France Magazine:
  7. ^ a b Roger Smither "Henri Langlois and Nitrate, Before and After 1959" in Smither (ed) This Film is Dangerous: A Celebration of Nitrate Film, Brussels: FIAF, 2002, p.247-55
  8. ^ Smither This Film is Dangerous, p.251
  9. ^ http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/158566/Langlois/overview
  10. ^ NY Times 12 October 2005 "It makes a persuasive case for Langlois as one of the most important figures in the history of film"
  11. ^ Imdb Site Full list of contributors
Bibliography
  • Baecque, Antoine de; Toubiana, Serge (1999). Truffaut: A Biography. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0375400896. 
  • MacCabe, Colin (2005). Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy. New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21105-0. 
  • Myrent, Glenn; Langlois, Georges P. (1986). Henri Langlois: First Citizen of Cinema. Paris: Editions Denoël. 
  • Roud, Richard (1983). A Passion for Films: Henri Langlois and the Cinematheque Francaise. London: Secker and Warburg. 

External links[edit]