Henry A. Wallace
|Henry A. Wallace|
|33rd Vice President of the United States|
January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945
|President||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Preceded by||John N. Garner|
|Succeeded by||Harry S. Truman|
|11th United States Secretary of Agriculture|
March 4, 1933 – September 4, 1940
|President||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Preceded by||Arthur M. Hyde|
|Succeeded by||Claude R. Wickard|
|10th United States Secretary of Commerce|
March 2, 1945 – September 20, 1946
|President||Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
|Preceded by||Jesse Holman Jones|
|Succeeded by||W. Averell Harriman|
|Born||Henry Agard Wallace
October 7, 1888
|Died||November 18, 1965
|Political party||Democratic (1933–1946)
|Children||Henry Browne Wallace
(1915–2005), Jean Wallace
(1920–2011), Robert Browne Wallace (1918–2002)
|Alma mater||Iowa State University|
Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945), the Secretary of Agriculture (1933–1940), and the Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946). In the 1948 presidential election, Wallace was the nominee of the Progressive Party.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Religious explorations
- 3 Political career
- 4 Later career and death
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
The Wallace family was of Scots-Irish Presbyterian stock, and had originally emigrated from Ulster, Ireland, to Pennsylvania. Henry Agard Wallace's grandfather, Henry Wallace or "Uncle Henry", was a former Presbyterian minister who preached the "social gospel". As a large landowner in Iowa, "Uncle Henry" was an advocate of "scientific farming" and helped organize The Farmers' Protective Association, the Agricultural Editors Association, and the Iowa Improved Stock Association, becoming the editor of the Iowa Homestead, the state's largest and most important farm publication. He viewed it as his life mission to serve God by helping his fellow farmers.
This Henry's son, and Henry A.'s father, was Henry Cantwell Wallace, a farmer, newspaper editor, university professor and author who would serve as the Secretary of Agriculture in the Republican administrations of Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Henry Agard was born on October 7, 1888, at a farm near the village of Orient, Iowa, in Adair County, but the family later moved to Des Moines. Wallace's mother, née May Brodhead, was deeply religious. She had been to college and was trained in music and art. May Wallace shared her love of plants with her son while he was still a boy, teaching him to cross-breed pansies. When the African-American "plant doctor" and future agronomist George Washington Carver became a student and later an instructor at Iowa State University, the Wallaces took him into their home, as racial prejudice prevented Carver from living in the dorm. As a boy, Wallace accompanied Carver on nature walks, identifying the botanical structures of wild flowers and prairie grasses. Carver left for Tuskegee when Wallace was eight, but his influence on Wallace was deep and lasting. By the age of ten, Wallace was experimenting with plant breeding in his own plot. He also developed a keen interest in math and statistics. At fifteen, he conducted experiments to demonstrate that the then-conventional method of judging the quality of corn strains solely by such esthetic qualities as the beauty and symmetry of the ears was deeply flawed, failing to take into account the vigor and productivity of the whole plant as measured quantitatively. Wallace's experiments proved that there was no relationship between yield and appearance. Where plant hybridity had traditionally been viewed negatively as "mongrelization" signaling decline, Wallace's work introduced the concept of hybrid vigor.
Wallace attended Iowa State College at Ames, Iowa, graduating in 1910 with a bachelor's degree in animal husbandry. He worked on the editorial staff of the family-owned paper Wallaces' Farmer in Des Moines from 1910 to 1924, and took the role of chief editor from 1924 to 1929. Wallace experimented with breeding high-yielding hybrid corn, and wrote a good number of publications on agriculture. In 1915, he devised the first corn-hog ratio charts indicating the probable course of markets. Wallace was also a practicing statistician, writing an influential article with the pioneering statistician George W. Snedecor of Iowa State University on computational methods for correlations and regressions and publishing sophisticated statistical studies in the pages of Wallaces’ Farmer. Snedecor invited Wallace to teach a graduate course on least squares. It was Wallace, more than any other individual, who introduced econometrics (a form of statistical analysis used by economists) to the field of agriculture.
In 1914, Wallace married Ilo Browne, and in 1926, with the help of a small inheritance that had been left to her, he founded the highly successful Hi-Bred Corn Company, which made him a wealthy man. The company later became Pioneer Hi-Bred, a major agriculture corporation. It was acquired in 1999 by the Dupont Corporation for approximately $10 billion.
Wallace was raised as a Presbyterian and remained a devout Christian all his life. In college, however, he became increasingly dissatisfied with organized religion after reading William James' The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902). Around 1919 he stopped attending the Presbyterian church and spent the next ten years exploring other religious faiths and traditions, including spiritualism and esoteric religion. He later said, "I know I am often called a mystic, and in the years following my leaving the United Presbyterian Church I was probably a practical mystic ... I'd say I was a mystic in the sense that George Washington Carver was – who believed God was in everything and therefore, if you went to God, you could find the answers." Wallace joined the Theosophical Society on June 6, 1925, and that same year helped organize a Des Moines parish of the Liberal Catholic Church, an inclusive Christian denomination with ties to theosophy. He resigned from the Theosophical Society on or before November 23, 1935, and in 1939 formally joined the Episcopal Church.
One of the people with whom Wallace corresponded was the Irish poet, artist, and theosophist George William Russell, also known as Æ, who was editor of the Irish Homestead, the weekly publication of the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society (IAOS). Russell, like Wallace fervently dedicated to revitalizing rural life, had pioneered the rural cooperative Credit Union movement in Ireland.
During the 1930s Wallace also engaged in an exchange of jocular notes with Russian émigré, artist, and peace activist Nicholas Roerich, his wife Helena, and Frances Grant, Secretary of the Roerich Museum in New York. In 1933 the Roosevelt Administration, which had just formally recognized the Soviet Union, sent Roerich on an expedition to Central Asia on behalf of the Department of Agriculture. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., who was hostile to Wallace, writes that "Wallace did Roerich a number of favors, including sending him on an expedition to Central Asia presumably to collect drought-resistant grasses. In due course, H.A. [Wallace] became disillusioned with Roerich and turned almost viciously against him." Wallace biographers John C. Culver and John Hyde, however, write that it is unclear with whom the idea for the Roerich expedition originated, since in cabinet meetings Wallace had opposed Roosevelt's granting of recognition to the Soviet government because of its hostility to organized religion and his fear it would dump grain on the United States.
Roerich had gained international celebrity through his lobbying for the preservation of the world's cultural and artistic monuments, a cause Wallace enthusiastically adopted. Roerich, and especially his wife Helena Ivanova, had developed their own brand of theosophy that they called Living Ethics or Agni Yoga, which emphasized a common thread running through all religions. Roerich had been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize and invited to Herbert Hoover's White House. Wallace had met him in 1929 and Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt were also acquainted with him. Roosevelt, who perhaps came by an interest in Asian religions through his mother Sara, had also exchanged letters with Helena Roerich. Roosevelt had also introduced Wallace to The Glory Road, a political allegory about the Great Depression written by popular Broadway playwright Arthur Hopkins. On its dust jacket The Glory Road is said to describe "the experience of the human race as it has tried to follow the road of truth while at the same time building up for itself a structure of civilization that will yield material wealth". Culver and Hyde identify this best-selling book the source of the pen-names Wallace later adopted in some of his correspondence – perhaps including the so-called "guru letters" he exchanged with Roerich and his circle. For example, in a letter to FDR Wallace says, "You can be 'the flaming one". Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. describes Wallace's references to figures in The Glory Road (such as "the feverent one" and so on), as "rash" and "cabalistic", bespeaking what Schlesinger calls "moods of rapture." However, Wallace's use of the term in addressing Roosevelt is likely an in-joke, since in The Glory Road there is no "flaming one", but rather a "flameless one', "elected as his people's executive", supported by bankers and corrupt leaders, who urges the electorate to "buy, buy, buy" as a way out of economic collapse.
Secretary of Agriculture
In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Wallace United States Secretary of Agriculture in his Cabinet, a post Wallace's father, Henry Cantwell Wallace, had occupied from 1921 to 1924. Henry A. Wallace was a registered Republican and would remain so until 1936, but had been a progressive and had campaigned for Democratic candidate Al Smith. He was one of the three Republicans whom Roosevelt appointed to his cabinet (the others were Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior, and William H. Woodin, Secretary of the Treasury). As Agriculture Secretary, Wallace's policies were controversial: to raise prices of agricultural commodities he instituted the slaughtering of hogs, plowing up cotton fields, and paying farmers to leave some lands fallow. He also advocated the ever-normal granary concept. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr, critical of Wallace in many respects, pronounced Wallace "the best secretary of agriculture the country has ever had." "Wallace was a great secretary of agriculture", Schlesinger wrote:
In 1933, a quarter of the American people still lived on farms, and agricultural policy was a matter of high political and economic significance. Farmers had been devastated by depression. H.A.'s ambition was to restore the farmers' position in the national economy. He sought to give them the same opportunity to improve income by controlling output that business corporations already possessed. In time he widened his concern beyond commercial farming to subsistence farming and rural poverty. For the urban poor, he provided food stamps and school lunches. He instituted programs for land-use planning, soil conservation, and erosion control. And always he promoted research to combat plant and animal diseases, to locate drought-resistant crops and to develop hybrid seeds in order to increase productivity.
Wallace had exchanged letters with Nicholas Roerich, a Russian émigré and artist. Wallace and Roosevelt successfully lobbied Congress to support Roerich's Banner and Pact of Peace, dedicated to protection of the artistic and scientific institutions of the world from the ravages of war, and in 1935 delegates from 22 Latin American countries met in Washington, D.C. to sign the pact. In 1934, Roosevelt and the U.S. Department of Agriculture sent Roerich and his Harvard-educated son George, who had studied Asian languages, on an expedition to Central Asia to search for drought-resistant grasses to prevent another Dust Bowl. However, once there, Roerich upset the diplomatic world and the US agricultural experts who accompanied him by searching for and possibly trying to bring about a revival of the legendary Buddhist kingdom of Shambhalla, variously located in Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, or Manchuria. These areas were partly under the jurisdiction of the British and Japanese empires, which did not look kindly on movements for national self-determination. After Wallace recalled him, the U.S. government aggressively pursued Roerich for tax evasion, and the artist (the holder of a French passport) took up residence in India, where gurus (see below) were not considered so unusual.
During the 1940 presidential election, the Republicans gained possession of a series of letters that Wallace had written to Roerich in the 1930s. In them, Wallace had addressed Roerich as "Dear Guru", signing himself as "G" – for Galahad, the name Roerich had bestowed on him. Wallace assured Roerich that he awaited "the breaking of the New Day" when the people of "Northern Shambhalla", a Buddhist term for the "land of pure enlightenment", would create an era of peace and plenty.
The Republicans had threatened to reveal to the public what they characterized as Wallace's eccentric religious beliefs prior to the November 1940 elections, but they had been deterred when the Democrats countered by threatening to release information about Republican candidate Wendell Willkie's rumored extramarital affair with the writer Irita Van Doren. The contents of the letters did become public seven years later, in the winter of 1947, when right-wing columnist Westbrook Pegler published what were purported to be extracts from them, characterizing Wallace as a "messianic fumbler," and "off-center mentally". During the 1948 campaign Pegler and other hostile reporters, including H.L. Mencken, aggressively confronted Wallace on the subject at a public meeting in Philadelphia in July. Wallace declined to comment, accusing the reporters of being Pegler's stooges.
Wallace served as Secretary of Agriculture until September 1940, when Roosevelt selected him as his running mate in the Vice Presidential slot on the 1940 presidential ticket. However, the conservative wing of the Democratic Party, many of them Southerners, mistrusted Wallace:
Wallace was an unreconstructed liberal reformer and New Dealer, qualities that recommended him to Roosevelt. But the old guard Democratic Party deeply distrusted Wallace as an apostate Republican and as a doe-eyed mystic who symbolized all that they found objectionable about [what they saw as] the hopelessly utopian, market-manipulating, bureaucracy-breeding New Deal.
Boos echoed through the hall when Roosevelt's choice of Wallace was announced, and the delegates seemed on the verge of rebellion. It was only after Roosevelt threatened to decline the nomination and that Eleanor Roosevelt delivered a conciliatory speech that they grudgingly yielded. Wallace received the support of 626.3 votes (around 59% of the 1100 delegates) when nominated at the convention, compared to 329.6 votes for Speaker of the House William B. Bankhead of Alabama.
Wallace was elected in November 1940 as Vice President on the Democratic Party ticket with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Electoral College Vote was 449 to 82. The inauguration took place on January 20, 1941, for the term ending January 20, 1945.
Roosevelt named Wallace chairman of the Board of Economic Warfare (BEW) and of the Supply Priorities and Allocations Board (SPAB) in 1941. Both positions became important with the U.S. entry into World War II. As he began to flex his newfound political muscle in his position with SPAB, Wallace came up against the conservative wing of the Democratic Party in the form of Jesse H. Jones, Secretary of Commerce, as the two differed on how to handle wartime supplies.
On May 8, 1942, Wallace delivered his most famous speech, which became known by the phrase "Century of the Common Man", to the Free World Association in New York City. This speech, grounded in Christian references, laid out a positive vision for the aftermath of the Second World War, beyond the defeat of the Nazis. He laid out a blueprint for a world of shared prosperity and in which colonialism and economic exploitation would be banned. The speech, and the book of the same name which appeared the following year, proved quite popular, but earned Wallace enemies among the Democratic leadership, business leaders, conservatives, and allied leaders like Winston Churchill.
Wallace also famously spoke out during race riots in Detroit in 1943, declaring that the nation could not "fight to crush Nazi brutality abroad and condone race riots at home."
In 1943, Wallace made a goodwill tour of Latin America, shoring up support among important allies. His trip proved a success, and helped persuade twelve countries to declare war on Germany. Regarding trade relationships with Latin America, he convinced the BEW to add "labor clauses" to contracts with Latin American producers. These clauses required producers to pay fair wages and provide safe working conditions for their employees, and committed the United States to paying for up to half of the required improvements. This met opposition from the U.S. Department of Commerce.
After meeting Vyacheslav Molotov, Wallace arranged a trip to the "Wild East" of Russia. On May 23, 1944, he started a 25-day journey accompanied by Owen Lattimore. Coming from Alaska, they landed at Magadan, where they were received by Sergei Goglidze and Dalstroi director Ivan Nikishov, both NKVD generals. The NKVD presented a fully sanitized version of the slave labor camps in Magadan and Kolyma to their American guests, claiming that all the work was done by volunteers. The delegation was provided with entertainment, and by some accounts left impressed with the "development" of Siberia and the spirit of the "volunteers". Lattimore's film of the visit tells that "a village... in Siberia is a forum for open discussion like a town meeting in New England." This visit took place while the U.S. and the Soviet Union were allies; American propaganda regularly portrayed the Soviet Union in a positive light. The trip continued through Mongolia and then to China.
After Wallace feuded publicly with Jesse H. Jones and other high officials, Roosevelt stripped him of his war agency responsibilities and began to entertain the idea of replacing him on the presidential ticket. Although a Gallup poll taken just before the Democratic Party's 1944 vice presidential nomination found 65% of those surveyed in favour of a renewed Vice Presidency for Wallace and only 2% favouring his eventual opponent, Harry S. Truman, it was Truman who went on to win the nomination. Wallace was succeeded as Vice President on January 20, 1945, and on April 12, Vice President Truman succeeded to the Presidency when President Franklin D. Roosevelt died. Henry A. Wallace had missed being the 33rd President of the United States by just 82 days.
Secretary of Commerce
Roosevelt placated Wallace by appointing him Secretary of Commerce in March 1945. In a speech on April 12, 1946, Henry Wallace said that "aside from our common language and common literary tradition, we have no more in common with Imperialistic England than with Communist Russia". He was notoriously "soft" on Communism, but his distaste for American involvement with Britain and Europe was widely shared across the political spectrum. In September 1946, he was fired by President Harry S. Truman because of disagreements about the policy towards the Soviet Union. He is the last former Vice President to serve in the President's cabinet.
The New Republic
Following his term as Secretary of Commerce, Wallace became the editor of The New Republic magazine, using his position to criticize vociferously Truman's foreign policy. On the declaration of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, he predicted it would mark the beginning of "a century of fear".
The 1948 Presidential election
Wallace left his editorship position in 1948 to make an unsuccessful run as a Progressive Party candidate in the 1948 U.S. presidential election. With Idaho Democratic U.S. Senator Glen H. Taylor as his running mate, his platform advocated friendly relations with the Soviet Union, an end to the nascent Cold War, an end to segregation, full voting rights for blacks, and universal government health insurance. His campaign was unusual for his time in that it included African American candidates campaigning alongside white candidates in the American South, and that during the campaign he refused to appear before segregated audiences or to eat or stay in segregated establishments.
As a further sign of the times, he was noted by Time as ostentatiously riding through various cities and towns in the South "with his Negro secretary beside him". A barrage of eggs and tomatoes were hurled at Wallace and struck him and his campaign members during the tour, while at the same time President Truman referred to such behavior towards Wallace as "highly un-American business which violated the American concept of fair play." Wallace commented that "there is a long chain that links unknown young hoodlums in North Carolina or Alabama with men in finely tailored business suits in the great financial centers of New York or Boston, men who make a dollars-&-cents profit by setting race against race in the far away South." State authorities in Virginia sidestepped enforcing its own segregation laws by declaring Wallace's campaign gatherings as private parties.
The "guru letters" reappeared now and were published, seriously hampering his campaign. More damage was done to Wallace's campaign when journalists H.L. Mencken and Dorothy Thompson, both longtime and vocal New Deal opponents, charged that Wallace and the Progressives were under the covert control of Communists.
Wallace's refusal to publicly disavow the endorsement of his candidacy by the Communist Party (USA) cost him the backing of many anti-Communist liberals and of independent socialist Norman Thomas. In 1999, University of Cambridge historian Christopher Andrew, author of The Defence of the Realm, who worked with evidence in the Mitrokhin Archive and wrote the authorized history of the British Secret Service MI5, stated publicly that he believed Wallace was a KGB agent, though he provided no evidence for this assertion.
Wallace suffered a decisive defeat in the election to the Democratic incumbent Harry S. Truman. He finished in fourth place with 2.4% of the popular vote; some historians now believe his candidacy was a blessing in disguise for the President, as Wallace's frequent criticisms of Truman's foreign policy, combined with his avowed acceptance of Communist support, served as a refutation of the Republicans' claim that Truman was "soft on communism". Dixiecrat presidential candidate Strom Thurmond outstripped Wallace in the popular vote. Thurmond managed to carry several states in the Deep South, gaining 39 electoral votes to Wallace's electoral total of zero.
Later career and death
Wallace then resumed his farming interests and resided in South Salem, New York. During his later years he made a number of advances in the field of agricultural science. His many accomplishments included a breed of chicken that at one point accounted for the overwhelming majority of all egg-laying chickens sold across the globe. The Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, the largest agricultural research complex in the world, is named for him.
In 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea, Wallace broke with the Progressives and backed the U.S.-led effort in the Korean War. Despite this, according to Wallace's diary, after his 1951 Senate Internal Security Subcommittee testimony, opinion polls showed that he was only beaten by gangster Lucky Luciano as the "least approved man in America". Previously, after hearing from Gulag survivor and friend Vladimir Petrov about the true nature of the 1944 Vice Presidential visit to Magadan, Wallace had publicly apologized for having allowed himself to be fooled by the Soviets. In 1952 Wallace published Where I Was Wrong, in which he explained that his seemingly-trusting stance toward the Soviet Union and Joseph Stalin stemmed from inadequate information about Stalin's crimes, and that he now considered himself an anti-Communist.
He wrote various letters to "people who he thought had traduced [maligned] him" and advocated the re-election of President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956. In 1961, President-elect John F. Kennedy invited Wallace to his inauguration ceremony, even though he had supported Kennedy's opponent Richard Nixon. A touched Wallace wrote to Kennedy: "At no time in our history have so many tens of millions of people been so completely enthusiastic about an Inaugural Address as about yours."
Wallace first experienced the onsets of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in 1964. He died in Danbury, Connecticut, on November 18, 1965. His remains were cremated at Grace Cemetery in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and the ashes interred in Glendale Cemetery, Des Moines, Iowa.
In popular culture
Director Oliver Stone focused on Wallace's career in the second episode, entitled "Roosevelt, Truman, and Wallace", of his 2012 documentary series, Oliver Stone's Untold History of the United States.
- Honeydew (melon), apparently first introduced to China by H.A. Wallace and still locally known there as the "Wallace melon"
- Bailan melon, one of the most famous Chinese melon cultivars, bred from the "Wallace melon"
- Agricultural Prices (1920)
- New Frontiers (1934)
- America Must Choose (1934)
- Statesmanship and Religion (1934)
- Technology, Corporations, and the General Welfare (1937)
- The Century of the Common Man (1943)
- Democracy Reborn (1944)
- Sixty Million Jobs (1945)
- Soviet Asia Mission (1946)
- Toward World Peace (1948)
- The Price of Vision – The Diary of Henry A. Wallace 1942–1946 (1973), edited by John Morton Blum
- John C. Culver and John Hyde, American Dreamer: The Life and Times of Henry A. Wallace (W.W. Norton, 2001), p. 8.
- "Papers of Henry A. Wallace". University of Iowa. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 9.
- Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 2.
- Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, pp. 27–28.
- Farebrother, Richard William (2008). "Henry Agard Wallace and Machine Calculation". The Bulletin of the International Linear Algebra Society (40): 1–24
- Wallace, Henry Agard; Snedecor, George Waddel (1925). "Correlation and Machine Calculation". Iowa State College Bulletin 35
- Grier, David Alan. "The Origins of Statistical Computing". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- See "The Life of Henry A. Wallace, 1888–1965", on website of The Wallace Center for Agricultural and Environmental Policy of Winrock International.
- Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 77.
- The Reminiscences of Henry Agard Wallace, Oral history at Columbia University (1951), quoted in Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 78
- Arthur Schlesinger Jr. / Who Was Henry A. Wallace?
- Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 136.
- Kirkus Review Summary of The Glory Road.
- Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal, 1933–1935: The Age of Roosevelt, Vol. 2 (New York: Mariner Books [1958, 1986], 2003) pp. 32–33.
- Arthur Hopkins, The Glory Road [New York: Dutton, 1935), p. 141.
- David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: the American People in Depression and War 1929–1945 (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 457.
- Arthur Schlesinger Jr., "Who Was Henry A. Wallace?", Los Angeles Times (March 20, 2000). Eric Rauchway, on the other hand, argues that the farm states then and now had and have too much influence relative to their small population, to the detriment of urban areas. He calls Wallace's policies misguided because the family farm with single-family dwelling was a nineteenth-century dream unsuited to modern needs. The future of agriculture, in his view, lay in industrial farming. Further, Rauchway characterizes as heartless such New Deal price-support measures as plowing up excess cotton and destroying excess baby pigs. Rauchway does admit, however, that 90% of farmers during the New Deal era supported Roosevelt's policies. See Eric Rauchway, The Great Depression and the New Deal: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2008), Chapter 5, "Managing Farm and Factory", pp. 72–86.
- The legend of the enlightened land of Shambhala, that had solved the human problems of greed and violence, was the inspiration of "Shangri-la" in James Hilton's 1933 best-seller, Lost Horizon. The novel was a favorite of Roosevelt's, who named his presidential retreat after it. Under the Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the retreat was rechristened Camp David.
- According to Wallace's biographers, exactly what happened during the so-called Roerich affair "proved difficult to untangle. ... Many of the documents involving the Roerich case were privately written and held during Wallace’s lifetime. Some of them were forgeries written specifically to damage him. Others were genuine but no less baffling." See Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 119.
- The religion of Henry A. Wallace, U.S. Vice-President
- Pegler's column for July 27, 1948, "In Which Our Hero Beards 'Guru' Wallace In His Own Den."
- Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, p. 457.
- David M. Kennedy believes that in nominating Wallace, Roosevelt was "throwing a bouquet" to "old progressive wing of the Republican Party, represented by George W. Norris, Hiram Johnson, and Robert La Follette Jr., in hopes that they would join the New Deal Coalition (see Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, p. 457).
- Tim Tzouliadis. The Forsaken. The Penguin Press (2008). pp. 217–226. ISBN 978-1-59420-168-4.
- Editorial. "Yesterday's Defeat, Tomorrow's Hope" St. Petersburg Times, St. Petersburg, FL., 22 July 1944, p1 http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=vWkxAAAAIBAJ&sjid=xU4DAAAAIBAJ&pg=7238%2C354247
- Tony Judt (2005). Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. The Penguin Press. p. 110.
- "National Affairs – Eggs in the Dust". Time. September 13, 1948. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
- "Am I in America?". Time. September 6, 1948. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
- Mencken, an opponent of democracy, had called the New Deal "a complete repudiation of the American moral system". See Vincent Fitzpatrick, H. L. Mencken (Mercer University Press, 1989) p. 110; for Dorothy Thompson, see Carl Rollyson, "Cherchez La Femme ", The New Criterion (February 2012).
- The Mitrokhin Archive. Vol. I: The KGB in Europe and the West (1999) (with Vasili Mitrokhin).
- http://www.wallace.org/henrya.html Wallace.org
- "Henry A. Wallace". The New York Times. November 19, 1965. "Although his career was marred by one major failure of judgment, Henry A. Wallace contributed significantly to the progress and prosperity of his country."
- Dirlik, Arif; Wilson, Rob (1995). Asia/Pacific as space of cultural production. Durham, N.C: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1643-9.
- Conant, Jennet. The Irregulars: Roald Dahl and the British Spy Ring in Wartime Washington. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008. British Intelligence surveillance of Vice President Henry A. Wallace and other Washington figures during and immediately after World War II.
- Culver, John C. and John Hyde. American Dreamer: The Life and Times of Henry A. Wallace. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.
- Macdonald, Dwight. Henry Wallace: the Man and the Myth. Vanguard Press, 1948.
- Markowitz, Norman D. The Rise and Fall of the People's Century: Henry A. Wallace and American Liberalism, 1941–1948. New York: The Free Press, 1973.
- Maze, John and Graham White, Henry A. Wallace: His Search for a New World Order. University of North Carolina Press. 1995
- Pietrusza, David 1948: Harry Truman's Improbable Victory and the Year that Changed America. Union Square Press, 2011.
- Schapsmeier, Edward L. and Frederick H. Schapsmeier. Prophet in Politics: Henry A. Wallace and the War Years, 1940–1965. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1970.
- Schapsmeier, Edward L. and Frederick H. Schapsmeier. Henry A. Wallace of Iowa: the Agrarian Years, 1910–1940. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1968.
- Schmidt, Karl M. Henry A. Wallace, Quixotic Crusade 1948. Syracuse University Press, 1960.
- Walker, J. Samuel Walker. Henry A. Wallace and American Foreign Policy. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1976.
- Wheatcroft, Geoffrey. "The Prince of Wallese". Times Literary Supplement, November 24, 2000. Review of Culver and Hyde's American Dreamer; Henry A. Wallace's A World of Hope a World of fear; Mark L. Kleinman's Henry A. Wallace, Reinhold Niebuhr, and American liberalism; and Zachary Karabell's The Last Campaign: How Harry Truman Won the 1948 Election. "Wallese" was Dwight Macdonald's term for what he considered Wallace's fatuous rhetoric of religious uplift.
- Selected Works of Henry A. Wallace
- "The Century of the Common Man". The text of Wallace's 1942 speech.
- Papers of Henry Wallace Digital Collection
- Quotes by Henry A. Wallace
- Searchable index of Wallace papers at the Library of Congress, Franklin D Roosevelt Library, and the University of Iowa
- "Henry A. Wallace – Agricultural Pioneer, Visionary and Leader", Iowa Pathways, education site of Iowa Public Television
- "The Life of Henry A. Wallace: 1888–1965", on website of The Wallace Center for Agricultural and Environmental Policy at Winrock International
- A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Henry A. Wallace (December 28, 1951)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Henry Agard Wallace (October 17, 1952)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- "Is There Any 'Wallace' Left in the Democratic Party?", The Real News (TRNN). Scott Wallace, grandson of Henry A. Wallace, interviewed by Paul Jay (video).
- Peter Beinart, "An Argument for a New Liberalism", The New Republic (December 2, 2004). Beinart argued that Truman's 1948 defeat of Wallace helped transform the Democrats into an anti-totalitarian party. Beinart condemned liberal Democrats who opposed the 2003 Iraq invasion as "Wallacite", a derogatory term he coined to indicate "soft on totalitarianism and external threats". Beinart subsequently reversed his position on the Iraq war, saying it had been "a tragic mistake".
- "Wallace, Henry Agard (1888–1965)". Biography of Wallace on Documents Talk: A Non-Definitive History, a site devoted to recent research in Soviet Cold War Archives maintained by Svetlana Chervonnaya
- FBI file on Henry Wallace
- The Country Life Center location of The Wallace Centers of Iowa: birthplace farm of Henry A. Wallace. Museum and gardens.
Jesse Holman Jones
|U.S. Secretary of Commerce
Served under: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman
March 2, 1945 – September 20, 1946
W. Averell Harriman
John N. Garner
|Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945
Harry S. Truman
Arthur M. Hyde
|U.S. Secretary of Agriculture
Served under: Franklin D. Roosevelt
March 4, 1933 – September 4, 1940
Claude R. Wickard
|Party political offices|
Franklin D. Roosevelt
|American Labor presidential nominee
|New political party||Progressive presidential nominee
John N. Garner
|Democratic vice presidential nominee
Harry S. Truman