Henry Billings Brown
|Henry Billings Brown|
|Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court|
29 December 1890 – 28 May 1906
|Nominated by||Benjamin Harrison|
|Preceded by||Samuel Freeman Miller|
|Succeeded by||William Henry Moody|
March 2, 1836|
Lee, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Died||September 4, 1913
Bronxville, New York, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||(1) Caroline Pitts, (2) Josephine E. Tyler|
|Alma mater||Yale College|
|Religion||Congregationalist as a child, Agnostic as an adult|
Henry Billings Brown (2 March 1836 – 4 September 1913) was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 5 January 1891 to 28 May 1906. An admiralty lawyer and U.S. District Judge in Detroit before ascending to the high court, Brown authored hundreds of opinions in his 31 years as a federal judge, including the majority opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson that upheld the legality of racial segregation in public transportation.
- 1 Early career
- 2 U.S. District Judge
- 3 Supreme Court
- 4 Death
- 5 Legacy
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Family and Education
Brown was born in South Lee, Massachusetts, and grew up in Massachusetts and Connecticut. His was a New England merchant family. Brown entered Yale College at 16, earned a bachelor of arts degree there in 1856. Among his undergraduate classmates were Chauncey Depew, later a U.S. Senator from New York, and David Josiah Brewer, who became Brown's colleague on the Supreme Court. Depew roomed across the hall from Brown for three years in Old North Middle Hall, and remembered "a feminine quality [about Brown] which led to his being called Henrietta, though there never was a more robust, courageous and decided man in meeting the problems of life[.]" After a yearlong tour of Europe, Brown attended a term of legal education at Yale Law School and another at Harvard Law School. Many lawyers at the time did not earn law degrees, and he did not.
Legal Activities in Detroit
Admitted to the Michigan Bar in 1860, Brown's early law practice was in Detroit, Michigan, where he specialized in admiralty law (that is, shipping law on the Great Lakes). In addition to his private law practice, at times between 1861 and 1868 Brown served as Deputy U.S. Marshall, assistant United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Michigan, and judge of the Wayne County Circuit Court in Detroit.
In 1864, Brown married Caroline Pitts, the daughter of a wealthy Michigan lumber merchant. They had no children. He did not serve in the Union Army during the Civil War. but like many well-to-do men instead hired a substitute soldier to take his place.
Brown kept diaries from his college days until his appointment as a federal judge in 1875. Now held in the Burton Historical Collection of the Detroit Public Library, they suggest that he was both genial and ambitious, but also depressed and doubtful about himself.
U.S. District Judge
The death of Brown's father-in-law left Brown and his wife financially independent; he was willing to accept the relatively low salary of a federal judge. On 17 March 1875, Brown was nominated by President Ulysses Grant to a seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan left vacant by the death of John Wesley Longyear. Brown was confirmed by the United States Senate two days later and immediately received his commission.
Publishing and Teaching
Brown edited a collection of rulings and orders in important admiralty cases from inland waters, and later compiled a case book on admiralty law for lectures at Georgetown University. He also taught admiralty law classes at the University of Michigan Law School from 1860 to 1875, and medical jurisprudence at the Detroit Medical College from 1868 to 1871.
After lobbying by Brown and by the Michigan congressional delegation, President Benjamin Harrison appointed Brown, a Republican, to the Supreme Court of the United States on 23 December 1890, to a seat vacated by Samuel F. Miller. Brown was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on 29 December 1890, and received his commission the same day. In an autobiographical essay, Brown commented "While I had been much attached to Detroit and its people, there was much to compensate me in my new sphere of activity. If the duties of the new office were not so congenial to my taste as those of district judge, it was a position of far more dignity, was better paid and was infinitely more gratifying to one's ambition."
As a jurist, Brown was generally against government intervention in business, and concurred with the majority opinion in Lochner v. New York striking down a limitation on maximum working hours. He did, however, support the federal income tax in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895), and wrote for the Court in Holden v. Hardy, upholding a Utah law restricting male miners to an eight-hour day.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Brown is best known for the 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, in which he wrote the majority opinion upholding the principle and legitimacy of "separate but equal" facilities for American blacks and whites. Plessy, which provided legal support for the system of Jim Crow Laws, was overruled by the Court in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. When issued, Plessy attracted relatively little attention, but in the late twentieth century it came to be vilified, and Brown along with it.
Personal Life in Washington, D.C.
In 1891, he paid $25,000 to the Riggs family for land at 1720 16th Street, NW, in Washington, D.C., hired architect William Henry Miller, and built a five-story, 18-room mansion for $40,000. He would live in this house, later known as the Toutorsky Mansion, until his death. Ironically—in light of Brown's racial attitudes—the house is now the embassy of the Republic of the Congo. Brown's wife Caroline died in 1901. Three years later, Brown married a close friend of hers, the widow Josephine E. Tyler, who survived him.
Near the end of his years on the Court he largely lost his eyesight. Brown retired from the Court 28 May 1906 at the age of 70.
Brown has been remembered as "a capable and solid, if unimaginative, legal technician." One of his friends offered the faint praise that Brown's life "shows how a man without perhaps extraordinary abilities may attain and honour the highest judicial position by industry, by good character, pleasant manners and some aid from fortune." Another commentator concludes that "Brown, a privileged son of the Yankee merchant class, was a reflexive social elitist whose opinions of women, African‐Americans, Jews, and immigrants now seem odious, even if they were unexceptional for their time. Brown exalted, as he once wrote,'that respect for the law inherent in the Anglo‐Saxon race.' Although he was widely praised as a fair and honest judge, Plessy has irrevocably dimmed his otherwise creditable career. Though some may argue that Brown bears personal guilt for the racial evils Plessy helped make possible, others respond that Brown was a man of his day, noting that the decades of de jure discrimination that came after Plessy merely reflected the zeitgeist."
Brown's legacy is diminished by his authorship of the Court's opinion in Plessy. However, "to simply focus on Justice Brown, or dismiss him as a bigot, avoids the greater issue . . . in Plessy, Brown was merely reflecting not only an accepted view of race but also a judicial philosophy that claims dispassion while protecting the entrenched." Brown will always be linked with Plessy, but in the context of his entire life perhaps he should not wholly be defined by one decision—deplorable as it is—out of the thousands of cases he capably handled during three decades on the federal bench.
A number of Brown's papers can be found at the Detroit Public Library, and at the Sterling Memorial Library at Yale.
- "Federal Judicial Center: Henry Billings Brown". 2009-12-11. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Memoir of Henry Billings Brown". Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Brown, Henry Billings (1876). Reports of admiralty and revenue cases argued and determined in the circuit and district courts of the United States for the western lake and river districts [1856-1875]. New York: Baker, Voorhis & Co.
- Brown, Henry Billings (1896). Cases on the Law of Admiralty. St. Paul: West Publishing Co. ISBN 978-1240089277.
- Hales, Linda (1992-08-13). "The Many-Storied Toutorsky Mansion; Historic 16th-Street Music School Opens for a 'Bare Bones' Preview". Washington Post. pp. T9.
- "Toutorsky Mansion: History". Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- "Henry Billings Brown". Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Entry for Henry Billings Brown by F. Helminski, in Kermit L. Hall, ed., Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2nd edition, 2005) (ISBN 978-0195176612)
- Lawrence Goldstone. Inherently Unequal: The Betrayal of Equal Rights by the Supreme Court, 1865-1903. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Kermit L. Hall, ed., Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2nd edition, 2005) (ISBN 978-0195176612)
- Robert J. Glennon, Jr., Justice Henry Billings Brown: Values in Tension, University of Colorado Law Review 44 (1973): 553–604
- Henry Billings Brown at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- Memoir of Henry Billings Brown, by Charles A. Kent of the Detroit Bar (1915) (ISBN 978-1115062916)
- Spartacus website on Henry Billings Brown
- Photograph, Henry Billings Brown Home, Washington, D.C.
- Henry Billings Brown Memorial at Find a Grave
Samuel Freeman Miller
|Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
December 29, 1890 – May 28, 1906
William Henry Moody