Henry Cow, 1975
|Genres||Avant-garde progressive rock, experimental, free improvisation, jazz rock, jazz fusion|
|Associated acts||Slapp Happy, The Orckestra, Art Bears, The Artaud Beats|
|Past members||Fred Frith
Henry Cow were an English avant-rock group, founded at Cambridge University in 1968 by multi-instrumentalists Fred Frith and Tim Hodgkinson. Henry Cow's personnel fluctuated over their decade together, but drummer Chris Cutler and bassoonist/oboist Lindsay Cooper were important long-term members alongside Frith and Hodgkinson.
An inherent anti-commercial attitude kept them at arm's length from the mainstream music business, enabling them to experiment at will. Critic Myles Boisen writes, "their sound was so mercurial and daring that they had few imitators, even though they inspired many on both sides of the Atlantic with a blend of spontaneity, intricate structures, philosophy, and humor that has endured and transcended the 'progressive' tag."
While it was generally thought that Henry Cow took their name from 20th-century American composer Henry Cowell, this has been repeatedly denied by band members. According to Hodgkinson, the name "Henry Cow" was "in the air" in 1968, and it seemed like a good name for the band. It had no connection to anything.
Fred Frith met Tim Hodgkinson, a fellow student, in a blues club at Cambridge University in May 1968. Recognizing their mutual open-minded approach to music the two began performing together, playing a variety of musical styles, including "dada blues" and "neo-Hiroshima". Henry Cow's first concert was supporting Pink Floyd at the Architects' Ball at Homerton College, Cambridge on 12 June 1968.
In October 1968 Henry Cow expanded when they were joined by Andy Powell (bass guitar), Dave Atwood (drums) and Rob Brooks (rhythm guitar). They performed with this line-up until December that year when Frith, Hodgkinson and Powell split off from the rest of the group and became a trio. Powell at the time was studying music at King's College under Roger Smalley, the resident composer. Smalley was influential in Henry Cow's early development. He exposed them to a variety of new music from bands and musicians like Soft Machine, Captain Beefheart and Frank Zappa. Smalley also introduced them to the idea of writing long and complex musical pieces for rock groups. It was at this time that Henry Cow began writing music to challenge their collective ability to play, then using it to improve on themselves.
As a trio, with Frith on bass guitar, Powell on drums and Hodgkinson playing an organ that Frith and Powell had persuaded him to learn, Henry Cow performed a number of gigs on the university calendar, including the annual Architects' Ball, the Midsummer Common Festival and on the roof of a 14-storey building in Cambridge. In April 1969 Powell left and the band reverted to a duo again, with Frith playing violin and Hodgkinson on keyboards and reeds. In October 1969 philosopher Galen Strawson auditioned for the band. Later, Frith and Hodgkinson persuaded bassist John Greaves to join the band, and with the services of a couple of temporary drummers and then Sean Jenkins, Henry Cow performed as a quartet for the next eight months. In May 1971 Martin Ditcham replaced Jenkins on drums, and with this line-up they played at several events, including the Glastonbury Festival alongside Gong in June 1971.
Ditcham left in July 1971 and it was not until September that year that the drummer's seat was filled again, this time by Chris Cutler. Responding to one of Cutler's adverts in Melody Maker, the band invited him to a rehearsal, and it was only when Cutler joined that Henry Cow settled into a permanent core of Frith, Hodgkinson, Cutler and Greaves. The band then relocated to London where they began an aggressive rehearsal schedule.
After having entered John Peel's "Rockortunity Knocks" contest in 1971, Henry Cow recorded a John Peel session for BBC Radio 1 in February 1972. They later went on to record another session in October that year and a further three sessions between 1973 and 1975.
In April 1972 Henry Cow wrote and performed the music for Robert Walker's production of Euripides' The Bacchae. This involved an intense and demanding three-week period of concentrated work that changed the band completely. It was during this time that Geoff Leigh on woodwinds joined and Henry Cow became a quintet.
In July 1972, the band performed at the Edinburgh Festival and wrote and performed music for a ballet with artist Ray Smith and the Cambridge Contemporary Dance Group at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. It was Smith who later did the "paint sock" art work on three of Henry Cow's LP covers.
Back in London, they started to organise a series of concerts and events under the names Cabaret Voltaire and Explorers' Club at Kensington Town Hall with invited guests, including Derek Bailey, Lol Coxhill, Ivor Cutler, Ron Geesin, David Toop, Lady June and Ray Smith. Improvisers Bailey and Coxhill became "enthusiastic supporters" of Henry Cow and attended many of their concerts; Frith later stated that he was "strongly affected by their critical engagement and encouragement". For the first time, Henry Cow started getting some attention from the rock press and the then emerging Virgin Records label. After much negotiations and deliberation, Henry Cow signed a contract with Virgin in May 1973.
Within two weeks of signing the contract, Henry Cow began recording their debut album Legend (also known as Leg End) at Virgin's Manor Studios in Oxfordshire. It took three weeks of hard work, but at the end they knew how to handle the studio themselves, which would prove to be invaluable later in their career. The track "Nine Funerals of the Citizen King", sung by the whole group, was Henry Cow's first overt political statement.
To promote its new signing, Virgin organised a UK tour for Henry Cow and Faust, who had also just signed to the label. During this tour, Henry Cow began preparing music for an unorthodox and provocative play, based on Shakespeare's The Tempest. Some of this music was used on their next record Unrest.
During a tour of the Netherlands in December 1973, Geoff Leigh left the group. Looking for more unusual instruments to draw them further away from standard rock and jazz, Henry Cow asked classically trained Lindsay Cooper (oboe, bassoon) to join. With hardly any time to rehearse, and Cooper having just had all four wisdom teeth extracted, they returned to The Manor in early 1974 to begin recording Unrest. It was during this time that they became acquainted with Slapp Happy, a quirky avant-pop trio of Peter Blegvad (guitar), Anthony Moore (keyboards) and Dagmar Krause (vocals), who had just completed their first LP for Virgin.
Recording Unrest was another intense experience, and the strongest period of collective learning since The Bacchae. They only had enough material to fill one side of the LP, and so were forced to spend a good deal of time developing the studio composition process that produced Side 2. The recording session brought out a lot of tensions in the band, these being reflected in the music, but in the end they were pleased with the result and this re-united the group.
In May 1974 they were on tour again around England and Europe with Captain Beefheart. It was during this tour that Henry Cow woke up to the reality of what was happening to them: they were becoming a rock band, playing the same thing night after night. Life was no longer a challenge and they were becoming complacent. After some serious thinking they decided to ask Lindsay Cooper to leave and fulfil their last outstanding concert obligations (a tour of the Netherlands) as a quartet. Without Cooper they were forced to abandon much of their learned material and worked up a 35–40 minute piece unlike anything else they had done before (this later became the politically-charged "Living in the Heart of the Beast" on In Praise of Learning).
In November 1974, Slapp Happy invited Henry Cow to be their band on their second LP for Virgin. The result was Desperate Straights, an almost entirely Slapp Happy-composed album that surprised everyone, considering how dissimilar the two groups were. The success of this venture prompted a merger of the two bands.
In early 1975 the merged group began rehearsing for In Praise of Learning in a freezing gymnasium. It was an arduous and extremely demanding time, something Slapp Happy were not prepared for, and it soon became apparent that the merger might not work. Nevertheless, they still went to The Manor and made In Praise of Learning together. But it was only after they started rehearsing with a view to performing live together that it became clear that their approaches were incompatible. The merger ended in April 1975, when Anthony Moore quit and Peter Blegvad was asked to leave. However, Dagmar Krause, whose contribution had added another dimension to Henry Cow's sound, elected to remain, which effectively spelled the end of Slapp Happy as a band.
Having made guest appearances on both the Henry Cow/Slapp Happy albums, Lindsay Cooper rejoined in April 1975 and Henry Cow became a sextet. In May 1975 they embarked on a brief concert tour with Robert Wyatt to launch In Praise of Learning and Wyatt's new album, Ruth Is Stranger Than Richard. This was followed by what became the most rigorous working schedule of Henry Cow's career: two years of almost continuous touring in Western Europe.
Henry Cow's music was challenging and uncompromising and this often led to them being accused of deliberately making their music inaccessible. As a result they were virtually ignored in their own country. Even Virgin Records, who had started dropping experimental groups in favour of commercial ones, was now showing little to no interest in Henry Cow. This led to the group having to continuously make decisions as to whether to continue or not (there certainly were no economic inducements). Cutler said, "We had to make what amounted to political decisions about the organization of the group and its relation to the commercial structures, and this was bound to be reflected in the music too." Henry Cow's anti-capitalist stance was brought on partly out of necessity rather than choice. They began working outside the music industry and doing everything for themselves. They abandoned agencies and managers and stopped looking for approval from the music press. Henry Cow quickly became self-sufficient and self-reliant.
Virtual exiles from their own country, they made mainland Europe their second home where they (and their music) were well received. After a concert in Rome in July 1975, Henry Cow remained behind with their truck/bus/mobile home and began meeting local musicians, including progressive rock band Stormy Six, and the PCI (Italian Communist Party). The PCI offered them concerts at Festa dell'Unità (large open-air fairs that run every summer all over Italy), and they joined Stormy Six's L'Orchestra, a musicians' co-operative in Milan. Each contact they made led to more contacts and soon doors opened for Henry Cow all over Europe.
While rehearsing for an upcoming tour of Scandinavia in March 1976, John Greaves left the band to start working on the Kew. Rhone. project with Peter Blegvad, and Dagmar Krause withdrew due to ill-health. Committed to the tour, Henry Cow had to perform as a quartet (Hodgkinson, Frith, Cooper and Cutler) and adjust their music accordingly. They took the radical option and abandoned composed material completely in favour of pure improvisation.
In May 1976 Henry Cow compiled a double LP Henry Cow Concerts for a new Norwegian underground label Compendium (re-released later on the budget Virgin sub-label Caroline). For the first time, they did everything themselves: the mastering, cover design, cutting, pressing and manufacturing. The album included an excerpt from one of several concerts performed with guest artist Robert Wyatt in 1975.
Henry Cow began auditioning for a bass player and found Georgie Born, a classically trained cellist and improviser. Even though she had never played bass guitar before, she joined the band in June 1976 and tuned her bass in 5ths like a cello with a lower C. In the interim, the band's compositions, including a new Hodgkinson epic with the working title of "Erk Gah", grew more complex.
Henry Cow returned to London in early 1977 where they merged with the entire Mike Westbrook Brass Band and folk singer Frankie Armstrong to form The Orckestra. They played their first concert at the Moving Left Revue at The Roundhouse in London and then at the Open Air Theatre in Regent's Park. The Orckestra later went on to tour in France, Italy and Scandinavia (extracts from some of these performances were released in 2006 on a CD-single included in the Henry Cow Box). At more or less the same time they set up Music for Socialism and its May Festival. It had been three years since Henry Cow had performed more than one concert a year in their own country. In an attempt to break the apathy that seemed to be discouraging anyone from wanting to put them on, they tried to organise a small alternative tour themselves, but abandoned it after 11 concerts when they started losing money: clearly nothing had changed.
Their contract with Virgin Records had now become a burden to both Henry Cow and Virgin: none of Henry Cow's records were licensed or distributed in the countries in which they spent all their time playing, and Henry Cow were not making any money for Virgin. Henry Cow needed to record again but Virgin refused to give them studio time at The Manor. When Henry Cow referred to the contract ("one month at a first class studio"), Virgin Records (in October 1977) agreed to cancel it.
By now Krause's health had deteriorated to such an extent that touring became impossible for her and she decided to leave the group, although she agreed to sing on Henry Cow's next album. The recording of this album was to begin at Sunrise studios in Kirchberg, Switzerland in January 1978. However, a group meeting one week before threw into question the material planned for it, the aforementioned "Erk Gah" in particular. Cutler and Frith hurriedly wrote a set of songs which, along with some of the planned material was duly recorded. On returning to London, another meeting was convened to question the predominance of songs on the album. The group agreed that the songs would be released separately by Cutler and Frith, while the instrumentals would be released later by Henry Cow. This decision, however, spelled the end of the band. Cutler, Frith and Krause released the songs, with four extra tracks recorded at David Vorhaus's Kaleidophon Studio in London, as Hopes and Fears under the name Art Bears, crediting the rest of Henry Cow as guests. Later that year Henry Cow returned to Sunrise, by then without Dagmar Krause and Georgie Born, to record their last album, Western Culture, an instrumental.
Rock in Opposition
Henry Cow agreed to disband as a permanent group, but did not announce the fact immediately. They continued for another six months, creating a new set of material (recorded later to complete Western Culture) and revisited for the last time, all the places that had supported them over the years.
In March 1978 Henry Cow invited four European groups, Stormy Six (Italy), Samla Mammas Manna (Sweden), Univers Zero (Belgium) and Etron Fou Leloublan (France) to come to London and perform in a festival Henry Cow had organised called Rock in Opposition or RIO. Throughout Europe, Henry Cow had encountered many "progressive" groups refusing to bow to the hegemony of American and British rock music. Instead they drew on non-American music sources, such as local folk music and 20th century "classical" or "art music", and often sang in their own languages. As was the case with Henry Cow, these groups struggled to survive: record companies were not interested in their music. Although these groups and Henry Cow were musically diverse, what they had in common was: (1) their independence and opposition to the established Rock business; and (2) a determination to pursue their own work regardless.
After the festival, RIO was formalised as an organisation with a charter whose aim was to represent and promote its members. RIO thus became a collective of bands united in their opposition to the music industry and the pressures to compromise their music.
Henry Cow's last concert was held in Milan on 25 July 1978. A final performance scheduled at the Annual World Youth Festival in Cuba never materialised. In August they returned to the Sunrise studios to compete Western Culture after which the band officially announced their break-up in the press, stating that "… although the group as a commodity, as a name, ceases to exist the work of the group will go on …"
Western Culture was released on Henry Cow's own Broadcast label. Shortly afterwards, Chris Cutler launched Recommended Records, his own independent label and non-commercial record distribution network.
The legacy of Henry Cow and its work continues to live on long after its demise. It was a groundbreaking group that launched the careers of many of its members, and they have kept in touch, collaborating in numerous projects over the years, including (to name a few):
- Art Bears
- Fred Frith, Chris Cutler and Dagmar Krause (1978–1981)
- Rags (Lindsay Cooper solo album)
- Lindsay Cooper, Fred Frith, Chris Cutler, Georgie Born and others (1979–1980)
- The Last Nightingale (benefit album for the striking miners in the 1984–1985 UK miners' strike)
- Lindsay Cooper, Chris Cutler, Tim Hodgkinson and others (1984)
- News from Babel
- Duck and Cover (commission from the Berlin Jazz Festival)
- Chris Cutler, Fred Frith, Dagmar Krause and others (1983–1984)
- Each in Our Own Thoughts (Tim Hodgkinson solo album)
- Live improvisitions
- Fred Frith and Chris Cutler (1979–2009)
- Fred Frith and Tim Hodgkinson (1990)
- The Artaud Beats
In spite of these collaborations, it did not appear that Henry Cow would ever reunite. Frith remarked in a 1998 interview, "Forget it! We're all much too busy." The closest to a reunion occurred in 1993 when Hodgkinson, Cutler, Cooper and Krause came together to record "Hold to the Zero Burn, Imagine" (formerly known as "Erk Gah") for Hodgkinson's solo album, Each in Our Own Thoughts. Then in December 2006, Cutler, Frith and Hodgkinson performed together at The Stone in New York City, only their second concert performance since Henry Cow broke up in 1978. The first was in London in 1986.
It was announced in June 2014 that Henry Cow would be reforming for two concerts celebrating the life and works of former band member and composer Lindsay Cooper. Featuring band members Chris Cutler, Fred Frith, John Greaves, Tim Hodgkinson and Dagmar Krause, Henry Cow will be joined by Music for Films, News from Babel and Oh Moscow. The concerts are to be performed at the Barbican Centre, London on 21 November 2014, as part of the EFG London Jazz Festival, and at the Lawrence Batley Theatre, Huddersfield as part of the Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival, on 22 November 2014.
Henry Cow's music included elaborately scored pieces (often with complex time signatures), tape manipulations, "flat-out free improvisation" and songs. It incorporated elements of jazz, rock, contemporary classical music and the avant-garde. Dagmar Krause's vocals added another dimension to their sound, giving it a dramatic, almost Brechtian flair. Music journalists at the time often underestimated the formal compositional element of their music, while others simply dismissed it as being "inaccessible".
Their music was often experimental, making classification all but impossible. However, the following styles (amongst others) are often associated with Henry Cow:
John Kelman wrote at All About Jazz that "Henry Cow represented a new kind of classical chamber music; one where spontaneity was a partial component, and the instrumentation used created textures that defied those looking for tradition and convention." Edward Macan in his 1997 book Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture described Henry Cow's music as "highly eclectic" and said that their pieces often included "furious atonal instrumental passages with no discernable melodic contour or key center, impossibly complex shifting meters alternating with freely ametric sections with no definable beat or regular recurring rhythms, and jagged, sprechstimme-like vocal lines that blur the line between song and speech."
Henry Cow's music was challenging, not only to the listener, but also to the band themselves. They often composed pieces to challenge their own capabilities. Some of their music was scored beyond the conventional ranges of their music instruments necessitating that they "reinvent their instruments", learn how to play them in completely new ways. And yet their music may not have been as good as it could have been. Henry Cow conducted their affairs as a committee, having regular, minuted meetings with no decisions being made unless approved by the group. This included their music. Band members brought their ideas to the table and sometimes they ended up being changed as a result of the collective process. It is impossible to say if these changes were for the better or if they dampened the composer's personal visions.
Henry Cow was very much a live band, yet of the original six albums they made, only one, Henry Cow Concerts gave a glimpse of their live performances. In January 2009 Recommended Records released The 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set, a nine-CD plus one-DVD collection of over 10 hours of previously unreleased and mostly live recordings made between 1972 and 1978, over four hours of which was improvised. This offered, "for the first time," according to All About Jazz, "a comprehensive account of Henry Cow's breadth and depth."
|1968||Frith, Hodgkinson, Spooner, Atwood, Brooks, Grahame|
|1968||Frith, Hodgkinson, Spooner, Atwood, Brooks, Powell|
|1968||Frith, Hodgkinson, Powell|
|1969||Frith, Hodgkinson, Greaves|
|1969–1971||Frith, Hodgkinson, Greaves, Jenkins|
|1971||Frith, Hodgkinson, Greaves, Ditcham|
|1971–1972||Frith, Hodgkinson, Greaves, Cutler|
|1972–1973||Frith, Hodgkinson, Greaves, Cutler, Leigh|
|1974–1975||Frith, Hodgkinson, Greaves, Cutler, Cooper|
|1975||Frith, Hodgkinson, Greaves, Cutler, Cooper, Blegvad, Moore, Krause|
|1975–1976||Frith, Hodgkinson, Greaves, Cutler, Cooper, Krause|
|1976||Frith, Hodgkinson, Cutler, Cooper, Krause|
|1976–1977||Frith, Hodgkinson, Cutler, Cooper, Krause, Born|
|1977–1978||Frith, Hodgkinson, Cutler, Cooper, Born|
|1978||Frith, Hodgkinson, Cutler, Cooper|
Source: The Canterbury Website Henry Cow Chronology.
- Fred Frith – guitar, violin, bass guitar, piano, xylophone (1968–1978)
- Tim Hodgkinson – organ, alto saxophone, clarinet (1968–1978)
- David Atwood – drums (1968)§
- Rob Brooks – rhythm guitar (1968)§
- Joss Grahame – bass guitar (1968)§
- Andy Spooner – harmonica (1968)§
- Andy Powell – bass guitar, drums (1968–1969)§
- John Greaves – bass guitar, piano (1969–1976)
- Sean Jenkins – drums (1969–1971)§
- Martin Ditcham – drums (1971)§
- Chris Cutler – drums, percussion (1971–1978)
- Geoff Leigh – saxophones, flute, clarinet (1972–1973)
- Lindsay Cooper – bassoon, oboe, recorder, piano (1974–1978; died 2013)
- Peter Blegvad – guitar (1975)
- Anthony Moore – keyboards (1975)
- Dagmar Krause – vocals (1975–1977)
- Georgie Born – cello, bass guitar (1976–1978)
- Annemarie Roelofs – trombone, violin (1978)
§ Did not appear on any Henry Cow recordings.
- Box 1: The Road: Volumes 1–5
- Volume 1: Beginnings
- Volume 2: 1974–5
- Volume 3: Hamburg
- Volume 4–5: Trondheim (double CD)
- Henry Cow Concerts (double CD)
- Box 2: The Road: Volumes 6–10
- Volume 6: Stockholm & Göteborg
- Volume 7: Later and Post-Virgin
- Volume 8: Bremen
- Volume 9: Late
- Volume 10: Vevey (DVD)
- Box 3: The Studio: Volumes 1–5
- Boisen, Myles. "Henry Cow". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- "Henry Cow". The Canterbury Music Website. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- Cutler 2009, vol. 1–5, p. 21.
- Buckley, Peter (2003). The Rough Guide to Rock. Rough Guides. p. 490. ISBN 1-84353-105-4.
- Cutler 2006, p. 6.
- "Henry Cow Chronology". Calyx: The Canterbury Music Website. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Ansell, Kenneth. "Dissecting the Cow". Calyx: The Canterbury Music Website. Archived from the original on 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- Wright, Patrick (11 November 1995). "Resist Me, Make Me Strong: On Chris Cutler". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
- Lake, Steve (16 April 1977). "Cow: moving left ...". Melody Maker. p. 38.
- Cutler 2009, vol. 1–5, p. 15.
- "Mike Oldfield (with Mick Taylor, Steve Hillage and members of Henry Cow, Gong and Soft Machine) – Tubular Bells (Live BBC Video 1973)". MOG. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
- Martens, Matthew (October 1996). "Henry Cow". Perfect Sounds Forever. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- Macan, Edward (1997). Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture. Oxford University Press. p. 1973. ISBN 0-19-509888-9.
- Glanden, Brad. "Henry Cow: Concerts". All About Jazz. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
- Cutler 2009, vol. 6–10, p. 34.
- Cutler 2009, vol. 6–10, p. 5.
- Warburton, Dan. "Fred Frith interview". Paris Transatlantic Magazine. Retrieved 2007-04-23.
- "The Stone calendar". The Stone, New York City. Retrieved 2007-04-23.
- "Fred Frith – Tim Hodgkinson – Chris Cutler, The Stone NYC, December 16, 2006". Punkcast. Retrieved 2007-04-23.
- "Legendary bands celebrate the life and work of Lindsay Cooper". hcmf// (Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival). 18 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "HENRY COW, MUSIC FOR FILMS, NEWS FROM BABEL and OH MOSCOW play the music of Lindsay Cooper". Serious. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Kelman, John. "Henry Cow: The 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set". All About Jazz. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- Fordham, John (24 September 2013). "Lindsay Cooper obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- Mack, Shane (19 September 2013). "RIP: Lindsay Cooper, member of Comus and Henry Cow collaborator". Tiny Mix Tapes. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Cutler, Chris; Hodgkinson, Tim (1981). The Henry Cow Book. Third Step Printworks. ISBN 0-9508870-0-5.
- Cutler, Chris (1984). File Under Popular: Theoretical and Critical Writings on Music. November Books. ISBN 0-946423-01-6.
- Cutler, Chris, ed. (2006). Henry Cow Concerts (CD booklet accompanying the 2006 reissue of Henry Cow Concerts). Recommended Records.
- Cutler, Chris, ed. (2009). The Road: Volumes 1–5 (book from The 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set). Recommended Records.
- Cutler, Chris, ed. (2009). The Road: Volumes 6–10 (book from The 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set). Recommended Records.
- Unofficial Henry Cow Site at the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
- Perfect Sound Forever. Henry Cow biography.
- The Canterbury Website. Henry Cow lyrics.
- Collapso–Canterbury Music Family Tree. Henry Cow family tree.
- Perfect Sound Forever. Interview with Chris Cutler (March 1997).
- BBC Radio 1. Henry Cow John Peel sessions.