Henry Draper Medal

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Samuel Pierpont Langley, who was the first recipient of the medal in 1886 "for numerous investigations of a high order of merit in solar physics, and especially in the domain of radiant energy"[1]

The Henry Draper Medal is awarded by the United States National Academy of Sciences "for investigations in astronomical physics".[2][3] Named after Henry Draper, the medal is awarded with a gift of USD $15,000.[4] The medal was established under the Draper Fund by his widow, Anna Draper, in honor of her husband,[5] and was first awarded in 1886 to Samuel Pierpont Langley "for numerous investigations of a high order of merit in solar physics, and especially in the domain of radiant energy".[1] It has since been awarded 45 times. The medal was most recently awarded in 2013 to William J. Borucki "For his founding concept, unflagging advocacy, and visionary leadership during the development of NASA's Kepler mission, which has uncovered myriad planets and solar systems with unforeseen and surprising properties.".[3]

The medal has been awarded to multiple individuals in the same year: in 1977 it was awarded to Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson "for their discovery of the cosmic microwave radiation (a remnant of the very early universe), and their leading role in the discovery of interstellar molecules";[6][7] in 1989 to Riccardo Giovanelli and Martha P. Haynes "for the first three-dimensional view of some of the remarkable large-scale filamentary structures of our visible universe";[2] in 1993 to Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman "for their insight and skill in developing a physical model of the evolution of the universe and in predicting the existence of a microwave background radiation years before this radiation was serendipitously discovered"[8] and in 2001 to R. Paul Butler and Geoffrey Marcy "for their pioneering investigations of planets orbiting other stars via high-precision radial velocities".[9]

List of recipients[edit]

Year Name Rationale Ref
1886 Langley, Samuel PierpontSamuel Pierpont Langley "For numerous investigations of a high order of merit in solar physics, and especially in the domain of radiant energy" [1]
1888 Pickering, Edward CharlesEdward Charles Pickering "For his work in stellar photometry, stellar photography, and stellar spectrum photography" [1]
1890 Rowland, Henry AugustusHenry Augustus Rowland "For his researches on the solar spectrum, as well as for his investigations in astronomical physics" [10]
1893 Vogel, Hermann CarlHermann Carl Vogel "For spectroscopic observations upon the motion of stars in the line of sight, and other kindred researches" [10]
1899 Keeler, James EdwardJames Edward Keeler "For his researches in spectroscopic astronomy" [11]
1901 Huggins, WilliamWilliam Huggins "For his investigations in astronomical physics" [12]
1904 Hale, George ElleryGeorge Ellery Hale "For investigations of solar phenomena, studies of stellar spectra, editing the Astrophysical Journal, and the direction of the Yerkes Observatory" [13]
1906 Campbell, William WallaceWilliam Wallace Campbell "For his observations and researches relating to the motions of stars in the line of sight, his improvements in the methods of measuring such motions, his discussions of conclusions to be drawn from them, and the organization of work in this field in the southern hemisphere" [14]
1910 Abbot, Charles GreeleyCharles Greeley Abbot "For his researches on the infra-red region of the solar spectrum and his accurate measurements, by improved devices, of the solar 'constant' of radiation" [15]
1913 Deslandres, Henri-AlexandreHenri-Alexandre Deslandres "For his researches in solar and stellar physics" [16]
1915 Stebbins, JoelJoel Stebbins "In recognition of his work on application of the selenium cell to stellar photometry" [17]
1916 Michelson, Albert AbrahamAlbert Abraham Michelson "For his numerous and important contributions to spectroscopy and astronomical physics" [18]
1918 Adams, Walter SydneyWalter Sydney Adams "For discovering and developing a method of determining the distances of the stars by means of a spectrograph" [19]
1919 Fabry, CharlesCharles Fabry "In recognition of his researches in physics and astronomy, chiefly by means of interferometers" [20]
1920 Fowler, AlfredAlfred Fowler "For his researches in celestial and laboratory spectroscopy, which have led to a valuable increase of our knowledge of sun spots, comets, and the stars—especially of red stars of Secchi's Type III" [21]
1921 Zeeman, PieterPieter Zeeman "For his discovery of the so-called Zeeman effect and for its application on magneto-optics" [22]
1922 Russell, Henry NorrisHenry Norris Russell "For his remarkably valuable contributions to knowledge of the order of stellar evolution" [23]
1924 Eddington, Arthur StanleyArthur Stanley Eddington "For his contribution to knowledge of physical conditions existing within the stars, and for his constructive interpretation of the Einstein theory of the relativity as applied to astronomical problems" [24]
1926 Shapley, HarlowHarlow Shapley "For his contributions to astronomical science" [25]
1928 Wright, William HammondWilliam Hammond Wright "For his researches on nebulae, new stars, and planetary atmospheres" [26]
1931 Cannon, Annie JumpAnnie Jump Cannon "In recognition of her astronomical work, in particular for cataloging the spectra of stars" [27]
1932 Slipher, VestoVesto Slipher "For his spectroscopic researches" [28]
1934 Plaskett, John StanleyJohn Stanley Plaskett "For his able and consistent labors in stellar radial velocities, and related studies energetically pursued for nearly 30 years" [29]
1936 Mees, KennethKenneth Mees "For his fruitful investigations in photographic process which have given emulsions sensitive to red and infrared of the spectrum and made possible great advance in knowledge of this highly important region of the radiant energy of stars" [30]
1940 Wood, Robert W.Robert W. Wood "In recognition of his contributions to astronomical physics; more especially his researches on the spectra and chemical composition of gaseous nebulae" [31]
1942 Bowen, Ira SpragueIra Sprague Bowen "In recognition of his contributions to astronomical physics; more especially his pioneer work upon resonance spectra, his use of color filters in astronomical photography, and his development of methods for concentrating to a high degree the light from diffraction gratings in desired orders and regions of the spectrum" [32]
1946 Merrill, Paul W.Paul W. Merrill "In recognition of his many important contributions to astronomical physics, in particular those relating to his researches in stellar spectroscopy" [33]
1948 Bethe, HansHans Bethe "In recognition of his contributions to astronomical physics, more particularly his researches on the generation of energy in the sun and stars" [34]
1949 Struve, OttoOtto Struve "For his contributions to astronomical physics" [35]
1951 Lyot, BernardBernard Lyot "For his contributions to solar physics. The coronograph, invented by Lyot, has made possible continuous observation of the inner corona on all clear days at any suitable location" [36]
1955 Hulst, Hendrik C. van deHendrik C. van de Hulst "For his pioneer work on the 21 cm radiation of neutral hydrogen" [37][38]
1957 Babcock, Horace W.Horace W. Babcock "For his original and outstanding work leading to the discovery of magnetic fields in stars and also the general magnetic field of the sun" [39]
1961 Schwarzschild, MartinMartin Schwarzschild "For his book Structure and Evolution of the Stars and two papers, "On the Maximum Mass of Stable Stars" and "Evolution of very Massive Stars," which are outstanding contributions in the field of stellar evolution" [40]
1963 Tousey, RichardRichard Tousey "For his achievements in solar spectroscopy" [41]
1965 Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle "For the development of a novel radio-telescopic equipment which made it possible to determine accurately positions of the numerous weak radio sources in the sky" [42]
1968 Edlén, BengtBengt Edlén "In recognition of his fruitful researches in astronomical physics, and particularly for his part in the discovery and proof of extremely high temperatures in the sun's corona" [43]
1971 Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar "For his leadership in, and major contributions to, the field of astrophysics" [44]
1974 Spitzer, LymanLyman Spitzer "For his vision and distinguished achievements in space astronomy and for his many outstanding contributions to the physics of the plasmas on earth and in the interstellar medium" [45]
1977 Penzias, Arno AllanArno Allan Penzias and Wilson, Robert WoodrowRobert Woodrow Wilson "For their discovery of the cosmic microwave radiation (a remnant of the very early universe), and their leading role in the discovery of interstellar molecules" [6][7]
1980 Morgan, William WilsonWilliam Wilson Morgan "For his pioneering researches in spectral classification, leading to a new standard of accuracy in our knowledge of the distances of the stars and the structure of our galaxy" [46]
1985 Taylor, JosephJoseph Taylor "For his pioneering studies of pulsars, including the fundamental measurements of orbit perturbations by gravitational radiation and other general relativistic effects" [47]
1989 Giovanelli, RiccardoRiccardo Giovanelli and Haynes, Martha P.Martha P. Haynes "For the first three-dimensional view of some of the remarkable large-scale filamentary structures of our visible universe" [2]
1993 Alpher, Ralph AsherRalph Asher Alpher and Herman, RobertRobert Herman "For their insight and skill in developing a physical model of the evolution of the universe and in predicting the existence of a microwave background radiation years before this radiation was serendipitously discovered; through this work they were participants in one of the major intellectual achievements of the twentieth century" [8]
1997 Paczyński, BohdanBohdan Paczyński "For his epochal contributions toward understanding gamma-ray bursts, the evolution of binary stars, and especially the gravitational lensing and microlensing of light from distant objects" [48][49]
2001 Butler, R. PaulR. Paul Butler and Marcy, GeoffreyGeoffrey Marcy "For their pioneering investigations of planets orbiting other stars via high-precision radial velocities. They have proved that many other planetary systems exist in the universe" [9]
2005 Bennett, Charles L.Charles L. Bennett "For his contribution to the precise determination of the age, composition, and curvature of the universe through his leadership of NASA's WMAP [Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe] cosmic microwave background mission" [5][50]
2009 Gehrels, NeilNeil Gehrels "For his pioneering contributions to gamma ray astronomy. His leadership of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Swift Mission has led to new insights into the extreme physics of active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursts" [4]
2013 Borucki, William J.William J. Borucki "For his founding concept, unflagging advocacy, and visionary leadership during the development of NASA's Kepler mission, which has uncovered myriad planets and solar systems with unforeseen and surprising properties." [3]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c A History of the Half-Century of the National Academy of Sciences 1863-1913. Committee on the Preparation of the Semi-Centennial Volume. 1913. p. 346. 
  3. ^ a b c "Henry Draper Medal". United States National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  4. ^ a b "National Academy of Sciences Honors NASA's Neil Gehrels for Science Contributions". NASA. Retrieved 2011-05-28. 
  5. ^ a b "Academy Honors 17 for Major Contributions to Science". United States National Academies. Retrieved 2011-05-28. 
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  8. ^ a b Rubin, Vera (1997). Bright galaxies, dark matters. Springer. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-56396-231-8. 
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  10. ^ a b American journal of numismatics, and bulletin of American numismatic and archæological societies 28. T.R. Marvin & Son. 1894. p. 78. 
  11. ^ The Popular Science Monthly. Bonnier Corporation. 1901. p. 90. ISSN 0161-7370. 
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  13. ^ Yount, Lisa (2006). Modern astronomy: expanding the universe. Infobase Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8160-5746-7. 
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  16. ^ The semi-centennial anniversary of the National academy of science. United States National Academy of Sciences. 2000. p. 70. 
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External Links[edit]

Henry Draper Medal