Henry Eyring (chemist)
Henry Eyring in 1951
February 20, 1901|
Colonia Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico
|Died||December 26, 1981
Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
University of Utah
|Alma mater||University of Arizona
University of California, Berkeley
|Doctoral students||Keith J. Laidler
J O Hirschfelder
|Known for||Transition state theory|
|Notable awards||Wolf Prize in Chemistry (1980)
Priestley Medal (1975)
Elliott Cresson Medal (1969)
Irving Langmuir Award (1968)
National Medal of Science (1966)
Peter Debye Award (1964)
Newcomb Cleveland Prize (1932)
He is the father of Henry B. Eyring.
A prolific writer, he authored more than 600 scientific articles, ten scientific books, and a few books on the subject of science and religion. He received the Wolf Prize in Chemistry in 1980 and the National Medal of Science in 1966 for developing the Absolute Rate Theory or Transition state theory of chemical reactions, one of the most important developments of 20th-century chemistry. Several other chemists later received the Nobel Prize for work based on it, and his failure to receive the Nobel was a matter of surprise to many. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences apparently did not understand Eyring's theory until it was too late to award him the Nobel; the academy awarded him the Berzelius Medal in 1977 as partial compensation. Sterling M. McMurrin believed Eyring should have received the Nobel Prize but was not awarded it because of his religion.
Eyring, a third-generation Mormon, was reared on a cattle ranch in Colonia Juárez, Chihuahua, a Mormon colony, for the first 11 years of his life. In July 1912, the Eyrings and about 4,200 other immigrants were driven out of Mexico by violent insurgents during the Mexican Revolution and moved to El Paso, Texas. After living in El Paso for approximately one year, the Eyrings relocated to Pima, Arizona, where Eyring completed high school and showed a special aptitude for mathematics and science. He also studied at Gila Academy in Thatcher, Arizona, now Eastern Arizona College. One of the pillars at the front of the main building still bears his name, along with that of his brother-in-law, Spencer W. Kimball, later president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Eyring's father was the last member of the LDS Church to live in a polygamous marriage, which he did until 1954 when one of his two wives died.
By 1919, Eyring had received a state fellowship to the University of Arizona, where he received degrees in mining engineering, metallurgy, and chemistry. He subsequently pursued and received his doctoral degree in Chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1927 for a thesis entitled: A Comparison of the Ionization by, and Stopping Power for, Alpha Particles of Elements and Compounds.
After a review of his dissertation, Princeton University recruited Eyring as an instructor in 1931. He would continue his work at Princeton until 1946 when he was offered a position as dean of the graduate school at the University of Utah. The chemistry building on the University of Utah campus is now named in his honor.
Eyring married Mildred Bennion. She was a native of Granger, Utah, who had a degree from the University of Utah and served as head of the physical education department there. She met Eyring while pursuing a doctorate at the University of Wisconsin. They had three sons together. The oldest, Edward M. "Ted" Eyring is a chemistry professor at the University of Utah. Henry B. Eyring is a general authority of the LDS Church. Harden B. Eyring is a higher education administrator for the State of Utah.
Eyring was a member of the LDS Church throughout his life. His views of science and religion were captured in this quote: "Is there any conflict between science and religion? There is no conflict in the mind of God, but often there is conflict in the minds of men." Eyring also feared overeager defenders of faith would discard new scientific findings because of apparent contradictions. He encouraged parents and teachers to distinguish between "what they know to be true and what they think may be true," to avoid clumping them together and "throwing the baby out with the bath.":245–247
As a member of the LDS Church, Eyring served as a branch president, district president, and, for over twenty years, a member of the general board of the Deseret Sunday School Union. His son Henry B. Eyring is currently an apostle and member of the First Presidency of the church.
- AAAS Newcomb Cleveland Prize (1932)
- Bingham Medal (1949) of the Society of Rheology
- Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry (1964)
- National Medal of Science (1966)
- Irving Langmuir Award (1967)
- Linus Pauling Award (1969)
- Elliott Cresson Medal (1969) from the Franklin Institute
- Golden Plate Award (1974)
- T. W. Richards Medal (1975)
- Priestley Medal (1975)
- Berzelius Medal (1979)
- Wolf Prize (1980)
- Member of International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science
Scientific publications: books
Henry Eyring authored, co-authored, or edited the following books or journals:
- A generalized theory of plasticity involving the virial theorem
- The activated complex in chemisorption and catalysis
- An examination into the origin, possible synthesis, and physical properties of diamonds
- Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
- Basic chemical kinetics
- Deformation Kinetics with Alexander Stephen Krausz
- Kinetic evidence of phase structure
- Modern Chemical Kinetics
- Non-classical reaction kinetics
- Physical Chemistry, an Advanced Treatise (1970)
- Quantum Chemistry
- Reactions in condensed phases
- The significance of isotopic reactions in rate theory
- Significant Liquid Structures
- Some aspects of catalytic hydrogenation
- Statistical Mechanics
- Statistical Mechanics and Dynamics
- Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives. Volume 2
- The Theory of Rate Processes in Biology and Medicine with Frank H. Johnson and Betsy Jones Stover
- Theory of Optical Activity (Monographs on Chemistry series) with D.J. Caldwell
- Time and Change
Religious publications: books
- Reflections of a Scientist (1983)
- The Faith of a Scientist. Bookcraft, Inc. (1967)
- Science and your Faith in God. Bookcraft, Inc. (1958)
- G.B. Kauffman; The Nobel Centennial 1901—2001; Chem. Educator 2001, 6, 370—384
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry: The Development of Modern Chemistry". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 12 Jun 2010.
- "Matters of Conscience: Conversations With Sterling M. McMurrin on Philosophy, Education, and Religion" by Sterling M. McMurrin & L. Jackson Newell, Signature Books, 1996
- AAAS - The World's Largest General Scientific Society
- Gerald N. Lund,"Elder Henry B. Eyring: Molded by Defining Influences", Ensign, September 1995.
- Eyring, Harden Romney; Eyring, Henry (1983). Reflections of a scientist. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co. p. 2. ISBN 0-87747-944-5.
- Eyring, Henry J.. Mormon Scientist: The Life and Faith of Henry Eyring. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book. ISBN 9781590388549.
- The Chemistry Department:1946-2000 by Edward M. Eyring, April K. Heiselt, & Kelly Erickson (University of Utah)
- Biography from the National Academy of Sciences
- Mini-Biography of Henry Eyring
- Biography at the AAAS
- The Eyring papers
- "The Reconciliation of Faith and Science: Henry Eyring's Achievement" - 1982 article on Eyring as an LDS scientist from Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought