Henry Francis Bowers

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Henry Francis Bowers (1837–1911) was the founder of the American Protective Association in Clinton, Iowa. It was staunchly politically anti-Catholic.

Henry Bowers, an attorney, objected to Catholic involvement in politics. He paradoxically held friendships with Catholics within his community.

His demands for Catholics to remove themselves from politics, was because he saw Catholics as having dual loyalties. To Bowers they could not be both loyal to the United States and a pope in Rome.

Secondary Scholarly Sources[edit]

  • Bennett, David H. The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movements to the New Right in American History (1988), ISBN 0-8078-1772-4.
  • Brown, Ira V. Review of Donald L. Kinzer, An Episode in Anti-Catholicism: The American Protective Association (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964), Pennsylvania History, April 1966.
  • Lipset, Seymour Martin and Earl Raab. The Politics of Unreason: Right Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970 (1970), ISBN 0-06-012647-7.

Primary sources[edit]

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