Henry Francis Bowers
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Henry Bowers, an attorney, objected to Catholic involvement in politics. He paradoxically held friendships with Catholics within his community.
Secondary Scholarly Sources
- Bennett, David H. The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movements to the New Right in American History (1988), ISBN 0-8078-1772-4.
- Brown, Ira V. Review of Donald L. Kinzer, An Episode in Anti-Catholicism: The American Protective Association (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964), Pennsylvania History, April 1966.
- Lipset, Seymour Martin and Earl Raab. The Politics of Unreason: Right Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970 (1970), ISBN 0-06-012647-7.
- Humphrey J. Desmond, "The American Protective Association" Catholic Encyclopedia (1911)
- Congressional Record (Washington, October 31, 1893)
- Traynor, in North American Review, volume clix (New York, 1887)
- Protestant Paranoia: The American Protective Association Oath at historymatters.gmu.edu
- 1896: McKinley and the A.P.A. at projects.vassar.edu
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