Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk

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For other people named Henry Howard, see Henry Howard (disambiguation).
The Duke of Norfolk
7th Duke of Norfolk.jpg
Spouse(s) Mary Mordaunt
Noble family House of Howard
Father Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk
Mother Anne Somerset
Born 11 January 1655
Died 2 April 1701

Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, KG PC Earl Marshal (11 January 1655 – 2 April 1701) was a politician and soldier. He was the son of Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk and Lady Anne Somerset, daughter of Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester and Elizabeth Dormer. He was summoned to the House of Lords in his own right as Baron Mowbray in 1678.

He married Mary Mordaunt, the only daughter and heiress of the 2nd Earl of Peterborough. They divorced in 1700 and he died without children. He was succeeded by his nephew, Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk.

He was rarely on good terms with his father, particularly after 1677 when his father married Jane Bickerton, his mistress of many years, causing a violent family quarrel.[1]

Like almost all the Howards he was a devout Roman Catholic; but during the anti-Catholic hysteria engendered by the Popish Plot he publicly conformed to the Church of England.[2] There is little doubt that this was simply a device to save the family estates, and seems to have succeeded; although his father was charged with recusancy in 1680, the charge did not proceed. While the senior Howard line survived, their cousin William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, was executed for his supposed part in the Plot in December 1680.[3] Henry as Baron Mowbray sat as one of the peers who tried him. It was a sign of some moral courage and independence, given the anti-Catholic feeling in the country, that he voted Not Guilty; this was more notable since according to John Evelyn, of all Stafford's extended family in the House of Lords, he was the only one to do so.[4]

On 20 June 1685, he was appointed Colonel of the Suffolk Regiment, which at the time was called the Duke of Norfolk’s Regiment of Foot. He was created a Knight of the Garter in the same year. As a man "all-powerful in his Dukedom"[5] he used his influence in the 1685 General Election to return members entirely loyal to the Crown. By 1688, however, he was on bad terms with James II, openly disapproving of his aggressive policy of conversion. When asked to question his constituents on whether they favoured repeal of the Test Act, he replied bluntly that he knew that all those in favour of repeal would fit comfortably in one coach.[6] When asked to replace the magistrates in his area with more compliant ones he simply refused and prudently went to France,[7] but returned in time to welcome the Glorious Revolution.

The first HMS Norfolk was named after him.

He served as a Privy Councillor under William III and Mary II in 1689. At first, he refused to take the oath necessary to sit in the House of Lords, since although he had publicly conformed to the Anglican rite, it was no secret that he remained a Roman Catholic at heart; but after a few months he subscribed to the oath.

His private surgeon was Thomas Greenhill.

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kenyon, J.P. The Popish Plot Phoenix Press Reissue 2000 p. 35
  2. ^ Kenyon p.35
  3. ^ Kenyon p.232
  4. ^ Evelyn Diary 7 December 1680
  5. ^ Kenyon, J.P. The Stuart Constitution 2nd Edition Cambridge University Press p.447
  6. ^ Kenyon, J.P. Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland 1641-1702 Longman Greens London 1958 p.173
  7. ^ Kenyon Stuart Constitution p.464

See also[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Earl Marshal
1684 – 1701
Succeeded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Military offices
New regiment Colonel of The Duke of Norfolk's Regiment of Foot
1685 – 1686
Succeeded by
The Earl of Lichfield
New regiment Colonel of The Duke of Norfolk's Regiment of Foot
1688 – 1689
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Bellasis
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Duke of Cumberland
Lord Lieutenant of Surrey
1682–1701
Succeeded by
The Earl of Berkeley
Constable of Windsor Castle
1682 – 1701
Succeeded by
The Duke of Northumberland
Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire
1682 – 1701
Succeeded by
The Earl of Abingdon
Preceded by
The Earl Craven
Custos Rotulorum of Berkshire
1689 – 1701
Preceded by
The Earl of Yarmouth
Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk
1683 – 1701
Succeeded by
The Viscount Townshend
Preceded by
The Lord Cramond
Custos Rotulorum of Norfolk
1689 – 1701
Preceded by
The Earl of Berkeley
Custos Rotulorum of Surrey
1689
Succeeded by
The Earl of Berkeley
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Henry Howard
Duke of Norfolk
1684 – 1701
Succeeded by
Thomas Howard
Baron Mowbray
(writ of acceleration)

1677 – 1701