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Henry Loeb III (December 9, 1920 – September 8, 1992) was an American politician of the Democratic party, who was mayor of Memphis, Tennessee for two separate terms in the 1960s, from 1960 through 1963, and 1968 through 1971. He gained national notoriety in his second term for his role in opposing the demands of striking sanitation workers in early 1968.
Loeb's parents were Jewish Germans who migrated from Germany to Memphis in the 1860s. Loeb was born in 1920. He attended Phillips Academy in Massachusetts and then Brown University in Rhode Island. He then served on a patrol boat in World War II. After the war, he gained popularity with the white middle class through appeals to his military service and through opposition to communism.
Loeb was a conservative in politics; but he received a large part of his criticism, as well as local support, for the local police's harsh and often violent treatment of strikers and sympathizers, which included local ministers, schoolchildren, and families of the workers. It was only after the King assassination, and subsequent Federal pressure placed on the city by President Lyndon Johnson and the United States Department of Labor, that the city relented and recognized AFSCME.
Loeb supported segregation, declaring support for "separate but equal facilities" and describing court-ordered integration as "anarchy". He grew more antagonistic to civil rights and labor in his second term, refusing even during the 1967 election to make any concessions to black union workers. He won the election despite intense opposition from Memphis's black community. The especially harsh conditions he imposed at the start of his 1968 term were a trigger for the Memphis Sanitation Strike.
Loeb was mayor during what came to be known as the Memphis Sanitation Strike of 1968. About 1,300 African-American members of Local 1733 of the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) engaged in a 64-day strike for improved wages, working conditions, and union recognition.
This conflict, and racial violence that spread throughout the city in its wake, brought Martin Luther King, Jr. to visit Memphis in late March of that year, in order to assist AFSCME in their negotiations with Loeb and other city officials and work alongside other Civil Rights leaders in raising consciousness about the low pay and mistreatment suffered by the workers. However, on April 4, King was assassinated. In the nationwide rioting that followed April 4–5, Loeb installed a curfew.
Further strikes had to be threatened later in 1968 to force Loeb and the City Council to honor its agreements.
Personal and later life
Henry Loeb was married and had two sons and a daughter.
Loeb himself eventually left Memphis and moved to Forrest City, Arkansas, some 50 miles westward where he was active in the Rotary Club and was instrumental in the early formation of the local Humane Society. He suffered a stroke in 1988, and another one about a month before his death in September 1992.
- "US Mayors". worldstatesmen.org. n.d. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- "Henry Loeb, 71, Memphis Mayor At Time of King's Assassination". The New York Times. 10 September 1992. p. 21. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Honey, Michael K. (2007). "Dr. King, Labor, and the Civil Rights Movement". Going down Jericho Road the Memphis strike, Martin Luther King's last campaign. New York [u.a.]: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04339-6. "Loeb, the outgoing Public Works commissioner, said 'a lot of good white men' might suffer if Sugarmon got elected as a commissioner of Public Works, and he called for a 'white unity' ticket."
- Honey, Michael K. (2007). "On Strike for Respect". Going down Jericho Road the Memphis strike, Martin Luther King's last campaign (1 ed.). New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04339-6.
- "Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike (1968)". King Institute Encyclopedia. Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- Garofalo, Michael; Thiam, Selly; Thrasher, Steven (4 April 2008). "Sanitation Workers Remember King's Last Stand". NPR. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
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