Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu
Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu (also written Montague or Montacute; born circa 1492 – died 9 January 1539), the only holder of the title Baron Montagu under its 1514 creation, was one of the relatives King Henry VIII of England had executed for treason.
Henry Pole was the oldest son of Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury, and Sir Richard Pole. He was invested as a knight by King Henry VIII in 1513 and summoned to Parliament as Baron Montagu in the Peerage of England on 12 October 1514. He was appointed steward of manors belonging to the Tewkesbury Abbey in 1526. From 1530 on he became justice of the peace for Somerset, Dorset, Hampshire and Sussex.
Marriage and issue
In May 1510 or before May 1520, Pole married Jane Neville, daughter of George Nevill, 5th Baron Bergavenny, and Joan Arundel. They had the following children:
- Catherine Pole (1511 - 23 September 1576) married Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon.
- Lucy Pole, married Anthony Browne.
- Thomas Pole (d. 1526), married Elizabeth Wingfield. Without issue.
- Henry Pole (aft. 1520 or in 1521 – aft. September 1542), married Margaret Neville. According to Alison Weir he was born in 1527. He was imprisoned from an early age at the Tower of London.
- Winifred Pole (b. aft. 1521 or in 1525), married firstly Sir Thomas Hastings (1515–1558, buried Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, the brother of her sister Catherine's husband), son of George Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon, without issue, and secondly, Sir Thomas Barrington of Barrington Hall, Hatfield Broadoak, Essex (died 1586). By the second Sir Thomas, Winifred had the following children: Catherine Barrington, married in 1584 to William Bourchier, great-grandson of John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners (a son of Catherine and William was Sir John Bourchier a regicide of King Charles I of England); Sir Francis Barrington, 1st Baronet; John Barrington.
Imprisonment and execution
On 4 November 1538, Montagu along with his wife, his wife's brother Edward Neville and other relatives were arrested on a charge of treason by King Henry VIII, though Thomas Cromwell had previously written that they had "little offended save that he is of their kin." Montagu's brother Reginald was not among them, in exile at the time, due to his opposition of King Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. They were committed to the Tower of London and Lord Montagu was attainted and his honours forfeited on 2 December 1538. On 9 January 1539, with the exception of Sir Geoffrey Pole, Henry's brother, all the arrestees were beheaded. (Neville had been beheaded earlier on 8 December 1538). Henry Courtenay, 1st Marquess of Exeter, was arrested along with his wife and 11-year old son (his wife would be released two years later while their son spent 15 years in the Tower until his release by Queen Mary I on 3 August 1553).
Ten days after Montagu's arrest, his mother was arrested and questioned by William Fitzwilliam, and Thomas Goodrich, Bishop of Ely. They reported to Thomas Cromwell that although they had "travailed with her" for many hours she would "nothing utter", and they were forced to conclude that either her sons had not included her in their plans for "treason", or she was "the most arrant traitress that ever lived." On 27 May 1541, the 67-year-old Lady Salisbury was beheaded in the Tower of London. Lord Montagu's son Henry was committed to the Tower at the same time as his father. It was expected that he would follow his grandmother to the block, but the King did not want to risk unfavorable public opinion and so he was deprived of a tutor and imprisoned in the Tower until his death, possibly from starvation, in 1542 or later.
The executions of the Pole family was Henry VIII's continuation of Henry VII's programme of eliminating possible contenders for the throne. Margaret Pole was the last Plantagenet remaining alive after the battles and aftermath of the Wars of the Roses: this descent from the previous ruling dynasty, combined with the family's firm Catholic allegiance, made her and her sons a grave potential threat to Tudor rule.
|Ancestors of Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu|
- tudorplace.com.ar Retrieved 25 November 2007
- medievalgenealogy.org.uk Retrieved 26 November 2007
- thePeerage.com Retrieved 6 July 2008
- Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), p. 136
- Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, pp. 16, 18.
- Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, p.–16.
- According to Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 1, p. 18, his wife had already died, before 26 October 1538.
- The Princes in the Tower by Alison Weir (New York, 1992) pgs. 250-251