Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch

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The Duke of Buccleuch
Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch.jpg
The Duke of Buccleuch
Born (1746-09-02)2 September 1746
Died 11 January 1812(1812-01-11) (aged 65)
Dalkeith Palace,
Midlothian, Scotland
Spouse(s) Lady Elizabeth Montagu
Parents Francis Scott, Earl of Dalkeith
Lady Caroline Townshend

Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch and 5th Duke of Queensberry KG KT FRSE (2 September 1746 – 11 January 1812) was a Scottish nobleman and long-time friend of the notable Sir Walter Scott. He is the paternal 3rd great-grandfather of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, and the maternal 4th great-grandfather of Prince William of Gloucester and Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester. He is also the paternal 5th great-grandfather to Sarah, Duchess of York, and a maternal 6th great-grandfather to Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie of York.

Much of the family's lands and wealth were accumulated during Henry's tenure as Duke. He integrated the surnames "Montagu" and "Douglas" with the Scott family name to form the unhyphenated compound surname "Montagu Douglas Scott".

Early life[edit]

Henry Scott was the fourth child of five born to Francis Scott, Earl of Dalkeith (son of Francis Scott, 2nd Duke of Buccleuch) and his wife, Caroline Campbell, and the third-born and only surviving male heir.[1] He was baptised on 29 September 1746 at St. George's Church, St. George Street, Hanover Square, London, England.[2] His father, Francis Scott died of smallpox at the age of 29, just one year before the death of Henry's grandfather, the 2nd Duke of Buccleuch. It was young Henry who succeeded his grandfather as Duke of Buccleuch on 22 April 1751, at the age of just four.[1]

Educated at Eton College,[2] through his stepfather Charles Townshend, Henry was given the opportunity to travel abroad with Adam Smith as his tutor from 1764 to 1766. The Duke remained lifelong friends with Adam Smith and is credited with bringing him out of his shell.

Marriage and family[edit]

On 2 May 1767, he married Lady Elizabeth Montagu,[1] the eldest daughter of Lady Mary Montagu and George (Brudenell) Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu. The couple were married in Montagu House, Whitehall, London. Elizabeth's grandparents were Sir John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu and Lady Mary Churchill, and Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu (first creation) and Elizabeth Wriothesley (daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton). Her maternal great-grandparents were John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Lady Sarah Jenyns.

Henry and Elizabeth bore seven children together:

The origin of the Montagu Douglas Scott surname[edit]

The Montagu line[edit]

The Duchess of Buccleuch by Thomas Gainsborough, c. 1767.

When Sir John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu died on 5 July 1749, his estate had been entailed to his daughter, Lady Mary Montagu, who was married to Sir George Brudenell, the 4th Earl of Cardigan. The Montagu peerages, like most English peerages, were limited to heirs male, and became extinct with the 2nd Duke. However, within ten days after Montagu’s death, Cardigan adopted the Montagu name and coat of arms for both himself and his two children, in order that the Montagu name should continue. Seventeen years later, in 1766, King George III created him Duke of Montagu and Marquess of Monthermer.

The first Duke of the 1766 creation died 23 May 1790 — also survived only by a daughter, Elizabeth, now Duchess of Buccleuch. Once again the Montagu peerages became extinct. Elizabeth inherited only the unentailed Montagu assets, which included Boughton House in Weekley, Northamptonshire. Like his father-in-law, Buccleuch wished to perpetuate the Montagu name, and adopted the unhyphenated surname Montagu Scott.

The Douglas line[edit]

William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry never married; when he died on 23 December 1810, his peerages and entailments passed to his 2nd cousin once removed, Sir Henry Montagu Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, through Sir Henry's grandmother, Lady Jane Douglas, Queensberry’s first cousin once removed. Buccleuch then added the surname to his own, forming the unhyphenated surname Montagu Douglas Scott which the family bears to this day.

Career[edit]

The Duke of Buccleuch by Philip Audinet, 1798.

Buccleuch was governor of the Royal Bank of Scotland from 1777 to 1812. He was president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh from 1783 to 1812. He was lord-lieutenant of Haddington from 1794 to 1812, and lord-lieutenant of Midlothian from 1794 to 1812. In 1778, he raised successfully a regiment of fencibles.[2]

Death[edit]

Buccleuch died at Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian, Scotland, on 11 January 1812, aged 65. He was buried in the family crypt of the Buccleuch Memorial Chapel in St. Mary's Episcopal Church, Dalkeith, Midlothian.[1] The church is located on Dalkeith's high street, at the entrance to Dalkeith Country Park.[5]

Titles, honours and awards[edit]

  • 31 January 1748 – 31 March 1750: Henry Scott, Lord Eskdaill
  • 1 April 1750 – 21 April 1751: Henry Scott, Earl of Dalkeith
  • 22 April 1751 – 22 December 1810: His Grace, Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch[2]
  • 1778 – 1812: Captain General of the Royal Company of Archers[2]
  • 1767: Appointed Knight of the Thistle (KT)[2]
  • 1794: Appointed Knight of the Garter (KG) (resigning as Knight of the Thistle)[2]
  • 1802: Inherited the Lordship of Bowland from his wife's brother-in-law, 1st Earl of Beaulieu
  • 23 December 1810 – 11 January 1812: His Grace, Sir Henry Montagu Douglas Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch & 5th Duke of Queensberry[2]

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d G. E. Cokayne, Vicary Gibbs, H. A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 1910-1959, reprint, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000, volume IV, p. 442.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h G.E. Cokayne, Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 1910-1959, reprint, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000, volume II, p. 369.
  3. ^ a b c d e Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003, volume I, p 561.
  4. ^ a b G.E. Cokayne, Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 1910-1959, reprint, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000, volume II, p. 370.
  5. ^ http://www.stmarysdalkeith.co.uk/
Honorary titles
New title Lord Lieutenant of Midlothian
1794 – 1812
Succeeded by
The Duke of Buccleuch
Preceded by
The Duke of Roxburghe
Lord Lieutenant of Roxburghshire
1804 – 1812
Succeeded by
Earl of Ancram
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Francis Scott
Duke of Buccleuch
2nd creation
1751–1812
Succeeded by
Charles Montagu Scott
Baron Scott of Tyndale
(descended by acceleration)

1751–1807
Preceded by
William Douglas
Duke of Queensberry
1810–1812