Henry V (play)
Henry V is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in approximately 1599. It tells the story of King Henry V of England, focusing on events immediately before and after the Battle of Agincourt (1415) during the Hundred Years' War. In the First Quarto text, it was entitled The Cronicle History of Henry the fift:p.6, which became The Life of Henry the Fifth in the First Folio text.
The play is the final part of a tetralogy, preceded by Richard II, Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry IV, Part 2. The original audiences would thus have already been familiar with the title character, who was depicted in the Henry IV plays as a wild, undisciplined lad known as "Prince Harry" and by Falstaff as "Hal". In Henry V, the young prince has become a mature man and embarks on a successful conquest of France.
Elizabethan stages did not use scenery. Acknowledging the difficulty of conveying great battles and shifts of location on a bare stage, the Chorus (a single actor) calls for a "Muse of fire" so that the actor playing King Henry can "[a]ssume the port [bearing] of Mars". He asks, "Can this cockpit [i.e. the theatre] hold / The vasty fields of France?" and encourages the audience to use their "imaginary forces" (imaginations) to overcome the stage's limitations: "Piece out our imperfections with your thoughts."
The early scenes deal with the embarkation of Henry's fleet for France, and include a real-life incident in which the Earl of Cambridge and two others plotted to assassinate Henry at Southampton. (Henry's clever uncovering of the plot and his ruthless treatment of the plotters show that he has changed from the earlier plays in which he appeared.)
When the Chorus reappears, he describes the country's dedication to the war effort – "They sell the pasture now to buy the horse." The chorus tells the audience "We'll not offend one stomach with our play", a humorous reference to the fact that the scene of the play crosses the English Channel.
The Chorus appears again, seeking support for the English navy: "Grapple your minds to sternage of this navy" he says, and notes that "the ambassador from the French comes back / Tells Harry that the king doth offer him / Katherine his daughter."
At the siege of Harfleur, Henry utters one of Shakespeare's best-known speeches, beginning "Once more unto the breach, dear friends..."
Before the Battle of Agincourt, victory looks uncertain, and the young king's heroic character emerges in his decision to wander around the English camp at night, in disguise, so as to comfort his soldiers and determine what they really think of him. He agonizes about the moral burden of being king, noting that a king is only a man. Before the battle, Henry rallies his troops with the famous St Crispin's Day Speech (Act IV Scene iii 18-67), referring to "we few, we happy few, we band of brothers".
Following the victory at Agincourt, Henry attempts to woo the French princess, Catherine of Valois. This is difficult because neither speaks the other's language well, but the humour of their mistakes actually helps achieve his aim. The action ends with the French king adopting Henry as his heir to the French throne and the prayer of the French queen "that English may as French, French Englishmen, receive each other, God speak this Amen."
But before the curtain descends, the Chorus re-appears one more time and ruefully notes, of Henry's own heir's "state, so many had the managing, that they lost France, and made his England bleed" – a reminder of the tumultuous reign of Henry VI of England, which Shakespeare had previously brought to the stage in a trilogy of plays: Henry VI, Part 1, Henry VI, Part 2 and Henry VI, Part 3.
As with all of Shakespeare's serious plays, there are also a number of minor comic characters whose activities contrast with and sometimes comment on the main plot. In this case, they are mostly common soldiers in Henry's army, and they include Pistol, Nym, and Bardolph from the Henry IV plays. The army also includes a Scot, an Irishman, an Englishman and Fluellen, a comically stereotyped Welsh soldier, whose name is an attempt at a phonetic rendition of "Llywelyn".
The play also deals briefly with the death of Falstaff, Henry's estranged friend from the Henry IV plays, whom Henry remembers fondly.
Shakespeare's primary source for Henry V, as for most of his chronicle histories, was Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles; the publication of the second edition in 1587 provides a terminus post quem for the play. Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York appears also to have been consulted, and scholars have supposed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars. An earlier play, the Famous Victories of Henry V is also generally believed to have been a model for the work.
Date and text
On the basis of an apparent allusion to Essex's mission to quell Tyrone's Rebellion, the play is thought to date from early 1599.:p.5 The Chronicle History of Henry the fifth was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 14 August 1600 by the bookseller Thomas Pavier; the first quarto was published before the end of the year—though by Thomas Millington and John Busby rather than Pavier. (Thomas Creede did the printing.)
Q1 of Henry V is a "bad quarto", a shortened version of the play that might be a pirated copy or reported text. A second quarto, a reprint of Q1, was published in 1602 by Pavier; another reprint was issued as Q3 in 1619, with a false date of 1608—part of William Jaggard's False Folio. The superior text first saw print in the First Folio in 1623.
Criticism and analysis
Views on warfare
Readers and audiences have interpreted the play’s attitude to warfare in several different ways. On the one hand, it seems to celebrate Henry's invasion of France and valorises military might. Alternatively, it can be read as an anti-war portrayal.
Some critics connect the glorification of nationalistic pride and conquest with contemporary English military ventures in Spain and Ireland. The Chorus directly refers to the looked-for military triumphs of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, in the fifth act. Henry V himself is sometimes seen as an ambivalent representation of the stage machiavel, combining apparent sincerity with a willingness to use deceit and force to attain his ends.
Other commentators see the play as looking critically at the motivation for Henry's violent cause. The noble words of the Chorus and Henry are consistently undermined by the actions of Pistol, Bardolph and Nym. Pistol talks in a bombastic blank verse that seems to parody Henry's own style of speech. Pistol and his friends thus show up the actions of their rulers. Indeed the presence of the Eastcheap characters from Henry IV has been said to underscore the element of adventurer in Henry's character as monarch.
The American critic Norman Rabkin described the play as a picture with two simultaneous meanings. Rabkin argues that the play never settles on one viewpoint towards warfare, Henry himself switching his style of speech constantly, talking of "rape and pillage" during Harfleur but of patriotic glory in his St Crispin's Day Speech.
The play's ambiguity has led to diverse interpretations in performance. Laurence Olivier's 1944 film, made during the Second World War, emphasises the patriotic side, while Kenneth Branagh's 1989 film stresses the horrors of war. A 2003 Royal National Theatre production featured Henry as a modern war general, ridiculing the Iraq invasion.
A mock trial of Henry V for the crimes associated with the legality of the invasion and the slaughter of prisoners was held in Washington, D.C. in March 2010, drawing from both historical record and Shakespeare's play. Titled "The Supreme Court of the Amalgamated Kingdom of England and France", participating judges were Justices Samuel Alito and Ruth Bader Ginsburg. The outcome was originally to be determined by an audience vote, but due to a draw it came down to a judges' decision. The court was divided on Henry’s justification for war, but unanimously found him guilty on the killing of the prisoners after applying “the evolving standards of the maturing society”. Previously the fictional "Global War Crimes Tribunal" ruled that Henry’s war was legal, no non-combatant was killed unlawfully and that Henry bore no criminal responsibility for the death of the POWs. The fictional "French Civil Liberties Union", who had instigated the tribunal, then attempted to sue in civil court. The judge concluded that he was bound by the GWCT’s conclusions of law and also ruled in favour the English. The Court of Appeals affirmed without opinion, thus leaving the matter for the Supreme Court’s determination.
A tradition, impossible to verify, holds that Henry V was the first play performed at the new Globe Theatre in the spring of 1599—the Globe would have been the "wooden O" mentioned in the Prologue—but Shapiro argues that the Chamberlain's Men were still at The Curtain when the work was first performed, and that Shakespeare himself probably acted the Chorus. In 1600 the first printed text states that the play had been played "sundry times." The earliest performance for which an exact date is known, however, occurred on 7 January 1605, at Court.
The longest running production of the play in Broadway history was the staging starring Richard Mansfield in 1900 which ran for 54 performances. Other notable stage performances of Henry V include Charles Kean (1859), Charles Alexander Calvert (1872) and Walter Hampden (1928).
Major revivals in London during the 20th century include:
- 1900 Lyceum Theatre, Lewis Waller as Henry
- 1914 Shaftesbury Theatre, F.R. Benson as Henry
- 1916 His Majesty's Theatre, Martin Harvey as Henry
- 1920 Strand Theatre, Murray Carrington as Henry
- 1926 Old Vic Theatre, Baliol Holloway as Henry
- 1928 Lyric, Hammersmith, Lewis Casson as Henry (Old Vic Company)
- 1931 Old Vic Theatre, Ralph Richardson as Henry
- 1934 Alhambra Theatre, Godfrey Tearle as Henry
- 1936 Ring, Blackfriars, Hubert Gregg as Henry
- 1937 Old Vic Theatre, Laurence Olivier as Henry
- 1938 Drury Lane Theatre, Ivor Novello as Henry
- 1951 Old Vic Theatre, Alec Clunes as Henry
- 1955 Old Vic Theatre, Richard Burton as Henry
- 1960 Mermaid Theatre, William Peacock as Henry
- 1960 Old Vic Theatre, Donald Houston as Henry
- 1965 Aldwych Theatre, Ian Holm as Henry (Royal Shakespeare Company)
- 1972 Aldwych Theatre, Timothy Dalton as Henry (Prospect Theatre Company), also in 1974 in Roundhouse Theatre
- 1976 Aldwych Theatre, Alan Howard as Henry (Royal Shakespeare Company)
- 1985 Barbican Theatre, Kenneth Branagh as Henry (Royal Shakespeare Company)
On British television the play has been performed as follows:
- 1951 Clement McCallin as Henry, Marius Goring as Chorus, Willoughby Gray as Pistol
- 1953 Colin George as Henry, Toby Robertson as Chorus, Frank Windsor as Pistol
- 1957 John Neville as Henry, Bernard Hepton as Chorus, Geoffrey Bayldon as Pistol
- 1960 Robert Hardy as Henry, William Squire as Chorus, George A. Cooper as Pistol
- 1979 David Gwillim as Henry, Alec McCowen as Chorus, Bryan Pringle as Pistol
- 2012 Tom Hiddleston as Henry, John Hurt as Chorus, Paul Ritter as Pistol
There have been three major film adaptations. The first, directed by and starring Laurence Olivier in 1944, is a colourful and highly stylised version which begins in the Globe Theatre and then gradually shifts to a realistic evocation of the Battle of Agincourt. Olivier's film was made during the Second World War and was intended as a patriotic rallying cry at the time of the invasion of Normandy.
The second major film, directed by and starring Kenneth Branagh in 1989, attempts to give a more realistic evocation of the period and lays more emphasis on the horrors of war. It features a mud-spattered and gruesome Battle of Agincourt. Where Olivier staged the comic scenes as comedy, Branagh played them as serious drama.
In 2004, post-modern choreographer David Gordon created a dance-theatre version of the play called Dancing Henry Five, which mixed William Walton's music written for the Olivier film, recorded speeches from the film itself and by Christopher Plummer, and commentary written by Gordon. The piece premiered at Danspace Project in New York, where it was compared favorably to a production of Henry IV (parts 1 and 2) at Lincoln Center. It has been revived three times – in 2005, 2007 and 2011 – playing cities across the United States, and received a National Endowment for the Arts American Masterpieces in Dance Award.
- Appears in the Folio, but not the Quarto, version of the play. Taylor conjectures that Shakespeare replaced the "cold and distasteful" John of Lancaster, who had appeared in Henry IV, with the "decidedly more likeable Clarence.":p.101
- Shakespeare, William (2008). Gary Taylor, ed. Henry V. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953651-1.
- Taylor, Gary (1979). Three Studies in the Text of Henry V. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-812913-0.
- Greer, Clayton A. "Shakespeare's Use of The Famous Victories of Henry V," Notes & Queries. n. s. 1 (June, 1954): 238-41.
- Berry, Ralph (2005). "Henry V". Changing Styles in Shakespeare. Abingdon, England: Routledge. p. 67. ISBN 0-415-35316-5. "The concern of productions in the contemporary era…is bringing the darker, more sceptical passages into a living relation with the more heroically straightforward."
- Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets." Glyph 8 (1981): 40–61.
- Foakes, R. A. Shakespeare and Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003: 105.
- Watts, Cedric and John Sutherland, Henry V, War Criminal?: And Other Shakespeare Puzzles. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 200: 117
- Spenser, Janet M. "Princes, Pirates, and Pigs: Criminalizing Wars of Conquest in Henry V." Shakespeare Quarterly 47 (1996): 168.
- Rabkin, Norman. Shakespeare and the Problem of Meaning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981: 62.
- "Judgment at Agincourt". C-SPAN. 16 March 2010. link to video
- Treanor, Tim (18 March 2010). "High Court Rules for French at Agincourt". DC Theater Scene.
- Jones, Andy (8 March 2010). "High Court Justices, Legal Luminaries Debate Shakespeare's 'Henry V'". National Law Journal.
- Shapiro, James (2005). 1599, a year in the life of William Shakespeare. London: Faber. p. 99. ISBN 0-571-21480-0.
- Bate, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Eric (2007). William Shakespeare Complete Works. London: Macmillan. p. 1031. ISBN 978-0-230-00350-7.
- F. E. Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964, Baltimore, Penguin, 1964.
- Gurr, Andrew (2005). King Henry V. New Cambridge Shakespeare. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0-521-84792-3.
- Rockwell, John. "Reverberations: Three Shakespeares, Each With a Purpose, Each Hoping to Thrill" New York Times (January 16, 2004)
- "FY 2010 Grant Awards: American Masterpieces: Dance" on the National Endowment for the Arts website
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- Fully edited texts of Henry V, both original-spelling and modernised, at the Internet Shakespeare Editions
- Henry V, plain text at Project Gutenberg