Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland

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The Right Honourable
The Lord Holland
PC
Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron Holland by Sir George Hayter.jpg
Portrait of Lord Holland by Sir George Hayter, 1820. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Lord Privy Seal
In office
8 October 1806 – 31 March 1807
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Lord Grenville
Preceded by The Viscount Sidmouth
Succeeded by The Earl of Westmorland
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
25 November 1830 – 14 November 1834
Monarch William IV
Prime Minister The Earl Grey
The Viscount Melbourne
Preceded by Charles Arbuthnot
Succeeded by Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn
In office
20 February 1835 – 22 October 1840
Monarch William IV
Victoria
Prime Minister The Viscount Melbourne
Preceded by Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn
Succeeded by The Earl of Clarendon
Personal details
Born 21 November 1773 (1773-11-21)
Winterslow House, Wiltshire
Died 22 October 1840 (1840-10-23)
Nationality British
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Vassall
(1770-1845)
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford

Henry Richard Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland PC (21 November 1773 – 22 October 1840) was an English politician and a major figure in Whig politics in the early 19th century. A grandson of Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, and nephew of Charles James Fox, he served as Lord Privy Seal between 1806 and 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents headed by Lord Grenville and as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster between 1830 and 1834 and again between 1835 and his death in 1840 in the Whig administrations of Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne.

Background and education[edit]

Portrait of Lord Holland by François-Xavier Fabre, 1795.

Holland was born at Winterslow House, Wiltshire,[1] the son of Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland and Lady Mary, daughter of John FitzPatrick, 1st Earl of Upper Ossory and Lady Evelyn, daughter of John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower. His paternal grandparents were Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, and Lady Caroline Lennox, the eldest of the famous Lennox Sisters and a great-granddaughter (through an illegitimate line) of King Charles II.

He succeeded in the barony in December 1774, aged one, on the early death of his father, while his mother died shortly before his fifth birthday.[2] He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford,[1][2] where he became the friend of George Canning and John Hookham Frere. Lord Holland's uncle was the great Whig orator Charles James Fox, and he remained steadily loyal to the Whig party.[1]

Political career[edit]

On a visit to Paris in 1791 Holland became acquainted with Lafayette and Talleyrand. He took his seat in the House of Lords on 5 October 1796. According to the 1911 edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica he for a while "almost ... constituted the Whig party in the upper house." He was appointed to negotiate a treaty with American envoys James Monroe and William Pinkney,[1] was admitted to the Privy Council on 27 August 1806,[3] and on the 15th of October entered the Ministry of All the Talents led by Lord Grenville as Lord Privy Seal,[4] retiring with the rest of his colleagues in March 1807.[2]

Holland led the opposition to the Regency bill in 1811, and he attacked the orders in council and other strong measures of the government taken to counteract Napoleon's Berlin decrees. He denounced the treaty of 1813 with Sweden which bound Britain to consent to the forcible union of Norway, and he resisted the bill of 1816 for confining Napoleon in Saint Helena.[1] He was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster between 1830 and 1834[5] and 1835 and 1840[6] in the cabinets of Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne, and he was still in office when he died in October 1840.[1][2]

Writings[edit]

Lord Holland's statue rises from a pond in Holland Park, London.

Holland's protests against the measures of the Tory ministers were collected and published, as the Opinions of Lord Holland (1841), by Dr Moylan of Lincoln's Inn. Lord Holland's Foreign Reminiscences (1850) contain much amusing gossip from the Revolutionary and Napoleonic era. His Memoirs of the Whig Party (1852) is an important contemporary authority. He also published a small work on Lope de Vega (1806).[1]

Family[edit]

After visiting Paris in 1791 Holland again went abroad to travel in France and Italy in 1793. At Florence he met Elizabeth Vassall, at that time Lady Webster, wife of Sir Godfrey Webster, 4th Baronet. She and her husband obtained a divorce, and she married Holland on 6 July 1797, becoming Elizabeth Fox, Baroness Holland. An illegitimate son, Charles Richard Fox, was born to them. He later rose to become a General in the British Army.

They had three more children: the Hon. Stephen Fox (d. 1800), Henry Edward Fox, 4th Baron Holland, and Hon. Mary Elizabeth Fox, married to Thomas Powys, 3rd Baron Lilford. In 1800 he was authorized to take the name of Vassall, and after 1807 he signed himself Vassall Holland, though the name was no part of his title.[1] Lord Holland died in October 1840, aged 66, and was succeeded in his titles by his eldest and only surviving legitimate son, Henry. Lady Holland died in November 1845.[2]

Vassall ward[edit]

Vassall ward in the London Borough of Lambeth is named after Henry Richard Vassall-Fox who was responsible for the first building development in the area in the 1820s. Roads in the area such as Lord Holland Lane or Foxley Square commemorate this connection.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  2. ^ a b c d e thepeerage.com Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron Holland of Foxley
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 15949. p. 1121. 26 August.
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 15966. p. 1361. 14 October 1806.
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 18750. p. 2479. 26 November 1830.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 19263. p. 808. 24 April 1835.
Political offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Sidmouth
Lord Privy Seal
1806–1807
Succeeded by
The Earl of Westmorland
Preceded by
Charles Arbuthnot
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1830–1834
Succeeded by
Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn
Preceded by
Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1835–1840
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Stephen Fox
Baron Holland
1774 – 1840
Succeeded by
Henry Edward Fox
Baron Holland of Foxley
1774 – 1840