He published a Monograph of the British Fossil Crustacea, Order Merostomata (Palaeontograph. Soc. 1866-1878); A Monograph of Carboniferous Trilobites (Pal. Soc. 1883-1884), and many articles in scientific journals. He was editor of the Geological Magazine from its commencement in 1864 and sole editor from July 1865 until the end of 1918. Woodward's collection of shells, manuscripts and casts of fossil vertebrates can be found in the archives of the Cambridge University Museum of Zoology.
Henry's father, Samuel Woodward, was a noted geologist and antiquary. Henry's brother Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward became a noted librarian and antiquary while his brother Samuel Pickworth Woodward became a professor of geology and natural history. Henry Woodward had two sons, both of whom died before he did; the eldest, Henry Page Woodward was also a noted geologist who worked in Australia. Henry's second son, Martin, was a promising zoologist killed in a boating accident. Henry also had five daughters, two of whom- Alice B. Woodward and Gertrude Mary Woodward- worked in biological illustration, although Alice was primarily known for her children's book illustrations.